On Deck Cooperative Valencia Incredible 5 Star Review by Mark T.

This article describes the use, market penetration and market share of new car sales of electric cars by country
It also provides historical background, fleet size, existing government incentives, and deployment details by country
The article encompasses both low-speed neighborhood electric vehicle (NEVs) and highway-capable all-electric cars (BEVs)
Several countries publish their statistics and have purchase incentives schemes in place for the more general category of plug-in electric cars (PEVs), which includes also plug-in hybrids (PHEVs)
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included because they can not be plugged and recharged from an off-vehicle electric energy source
By mid-September 2015, over one million highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles have been sold worldwide[3][4] Of these, over 520,000 were sold in 2015, representing about 42% of the cumulative total since the launch of the Tesla Roadster in 2008
[5] Despite their rapid growth, plug-in electric cars represented 0
1% of the one billion cars on the world’s roads by the end of 2015
As of December 2015[update], the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 410,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since 2008
China ranks second with over 258,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with almost 130,000 plug-in units sold since 2009
[5][7] As of December 2015[update], over 419,000 plug-in electric passenger cars have been registered in Europe
[8][9] As of December 2015[update], sales in the European light-duty plug-in electric segment, which includes utility vans, are led by the Netherlands with 88,991 units registered, followed by Norway with 74,883 new units, France with 74,294 units registered, and the UK with 53,524 units
Norway is the country with the highest market penetration per capita in the world, also the country with the largest plug-in electric segment market share of new car sales, and in March 2014 Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric vehicle, and the segment’s market penetration climbed to 3% in December 2015
[11][12][13][14][15] Estonia, which has the second largest EV market penetration per capita after Norway,[16] is the first country that completed the deployment of an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a minimum distance of between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi)
By mid-September 2015, over one million highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles have been sold worldwide
[3][4] Plug-in electric cars represented 0
1% of the one billion cars on the world’s roads by the end of 2015
[6] When sales are broken down by type of powertrain, all-electric cars have oversold plug-in hybrids, with the pure electrics capturing 62% of global sales by mid-September 2015
[3] Sales of plug-in electric vehicles achieved the one million milestone almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV)
While it took four years and 10 months to reach one-million PEV sales, it took more than around nine years and a few months for HEVs to reach its first million sales
Between 2007 and 2010, only 11,768 plug-in electric vehicles were sold worldwide
[19] By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles
[20] After the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in December 2010, the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers, PEV sales jumped in 2011 to 45,000 units,[21] increased to 119,300 in 2012,[22][23] and reached 206,000 plug-in electric cars and utility vans in 2013
[21] Sales rose to over 300,000 units in 2014, up about 50% from 2013
[21][24] Global sales of highway capable light-duty plug-in electric vehicles reached about 520,000 units in 2015, up about 70% from 2014, and cumulative global sales reached 1,235,000 plug-in cars and utility vans
[5] In 2015 Europe and China passed the U
as the largest plug-in electric car markets in terms of total annual sales, with China ranking as the world’s best-selling plug-in electric passenger car country market in 2015
JATO Dynamics, based on LMC Automotive’s forecasts, estimates the global market is expected to reach sales in excess of 700,000 units in 2016 due to strong growth in China, Europe and the United States
[26] Research published by Bloomberg New Energy Finance in February 2016 predicts that as battery prices continue to fall, light-duty electric vehicles without government subsidies will be as affordable as internal combustion engine cars in most countries by the mid-2020s
As a result, the study forecasts that annual sales of electric vehicles will hit 41 million by 2040, representing 35% of new light duty vehicle sales
In another scenario the study considers that if new carsharing services are successful, together with the adoption of autonomous cars, they could boost electric-vehicle market share to 50% of new car saless by 2040
[6][27] On the other hand, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in its 2015 World Oil Outlook projected that the market share of battery electric cars and fuel cell cars will remain below 1% in 2040, while the share of hybrid electric cars is projected to grow from 1% in 2013 to 14% in 2040
[6][28][29]
As of December 2015[update], the United States is the largest country market with a stock of about 410,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since the market launch of the Tesla Roadster in 2008, up from a stock of over 295,000 units in 2014, and representing 33% of the global stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles
[5][30] China ranks second with over 258,000 units sold since 2011, up from more than 83,000 plug-in passenger cars sold through 2014, representing 21% of the global stock of plug-ins
[7] As of December 2015[update], Japan ranks third with almost 130,000 plug-in units sold since 2009
[5][7] In 2014 Japan ranked second with about 108,000 units
[7] As of December 2015[update], over 419,000 plug-in electric passenger cars have been registered in Europe, of which, 186,170 units (44
4%) were registered in 2015, up from 97,791 units in 2014, and 65,071 in 2013
[8][9][31] As of December 2015[update], sales in the European light-duty plug-in electric segment, which includes utility vans, are led by the Netherlands with 88,991 units registered, followed by Norway with 74,883 new units, France with 74,294 units registered, and the UK with 53,524 units
[5][10] Almost 25% of the European stock is on the roads in the Nordic countries, with over 100,000 registered plug-in electric cars as of December 2015[update]
Combined registrations in the four countries in 2015 were up 91% from 2014
When all segments of the plug-in electric vehicle market are accounted for, China is the world’s leader with 444,447 new energy vehicle sold between January 2011 and December 2015, of which, over 90% were sold during the last two years, with 331,092 units (74
5%) in 2015, and 74,763 (16
8%) in 2014
These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks
[33][34][35][36][37] China was the world’s best-selling plug-in electric passenger car country market in 2015, ahead of the U
, the top selling country in 2014
[5][38] As of December 2015[update], China is also the world’s leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric buses, plug-in trucks, particularly sanitation/garbage trucks
[3][39] Over 160,000 heavy-duty new energy vehicles have been sold between 2011 and 2015, of which, 123,710 (77
2%) were sold in 2015
[7][37] As of December 2015[update], China is the world’s largest electric bus market, and by 2020, the country is expected to account for more than 50% of the global electric bus market
The following table presents plug-in electric vehicle stock and PEV market share of new car sales between 2013 and 2015 for the ten countries with the largest plug-in electric-drive stock as of December 2015[update]
plug-in car sales are led by California, the largest American car market, which passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016, out of about 425,000 plug-in cars sold nationwide through February 2016, representing 47% of all plug-in cars sold in the U
[61] During 2014 California’s PEV market share reached 3
2% of total new car sales in the state, up from 2
[59][62] In 2015 the state’s plug-in market share fell to 3
[58] Until December 2014 California had more plug-in electric vehicles than any other country,[63][64] and in 2015 only two countries, Norway (22
4%) and the Netherlands (9
7%), achieved a higher plug-in market share than California
[65] Plug-in electric cars represented about 0
5% of the passenger fleet on the Californian roads by September 2015
Norway, with a population of about 5
2 million, is the country with the highest plug-in electric car ownership per capita in the world
[11][12] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric,[67][68] and the segment’s market penetration reached 2% in March 2015,[14] and passed 3% in December 2015
[15][69] Norway also has the world’s largest plug-in electric segment market share of total new car sales, growing from 5
6% in 2013, to 13
8% in 2014, and reaching 22
[5][13][24] Ranking next is the Netherlands, with a market share of 3
9% in 2014, and 9
[5][24] In 2015 nine countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share equal or higher than 1% of total new car sales,[5] up from six in 2014
[24][54][70] The nine countries are Norway (22
39%), the Netherlands (9
74%), Hong Kong (4
84%), Iceland (2
93%), Sweden (2
62%), Denmark (2
29%), Switzerland (1
98%), France (1
2%), and the UK (1
[5][53][71] In 2015 the European plug-in passenger car market share passed the one percent mark (1
41%) for the first time
The following table presents the top 10 countries according to their PEV market share of total new car sales between 2015 and 2013
In 2008 Australia started producing its first commercial all-electric vehicle
Originally called the Blade Runner, its name was changed to Electron, and is already being exported to New Zealand with one purchased by the Environment Minister Dr
[77][78] The Electron is based on the Hyundai Getz chassis and has proven popular with government car pools
In October 2008, Better Place announced plans to deploy charging network to power electric cars in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane in partnership with Australian power company AGL and finance group Macquarie Capital
[80] The initial network deployment was planned to take place in Canberra in late 2011
[81] As of December 2011[update], 12 public charge spots (power outlets, not battery swap stations) had been installed in Australia
[82] The roll out of the Australian network was initially planned to begin 6 months to a year after the roll out of the network in Denmark
[83] In December 2012, Renault announced that the launch of the Renault Fluence Z
was postponed indefinitely following delays with the roll out of Australia’s electric vehicle infrastructure
The electric car was scheduled to go on sale to the public from a number of dealers across the country in the fourth quarter of 2012
Better Place explained that delays in the deployments in Israel and Denmark are reflecting in the Australian roll out, which would take place between 12 to 18 months behind the other markets
[84] Better place have since gone bust with the only sign they ever existed being a few lone silver posts standing in (mostly university) car parks
Chargepoint is now the only major operator of a charging network still based and active in Australia
Beginning in mid-2009, twelve-month field trial was conducted with the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with potential electric vehicle customers, such as local, state and federal government bodies, and major fleet operators
[86] Leasing for fleet customers began in Australia in August 2010
[87][88] As of May 2011[update], a total of 110 i-MiEVs had been leased to government and corporate fleets, while retail sales to the public began in August 2011
As of September 2013[update], the Australian government does not offer any form of incentive or rebate scheme for the purchase of fuel-efficient vehicles by its citizens
[89] As of December 2012[update], 125 i-MiEVs had been sold in the country, 30 of which were sold by December 2011
A two-year fleet trial of 10 converted Ford Focus Electric cars, that also included 14 i-MiEVs and 3 Toyota Prius PHEVs,[91] commenced in Western Australia in 2010
[92] Each converted car was equipped with a 23 kWh battery pack, a 27 kW DC motor and a 1000A motor controller
These cars were then used in the study as regular fleet vehicles to find their usability for everyday driving
[93] In July 2011, Nissan Australia provided 16 Nissan Leaf vehicles, to be used by both personal and commercial users, for an electric vehicle trial in Victoria
[94] A total of 19 Leafs were registered in 2011, while sales of the Nissan Leaf in Australia began in June 2012—77 units were sold during 2012
[90][95] The Holden Volt, a plug-in hybrid model, was released onto the Australian market by late 2012 and a total of 80 units were delivered during that year
A total of 258 plug-in electric cars were sold during 2012, with the i-MiEV as the top selling model, with 95 units sold
[96] Sales during 2013 totaled 304 units, up 20% from 2012
The Nissan Leaf was the top selling plug-in car with 188 units followed by the Holden Volt with 101 units
The EV market share in 2013 was 0
036% of total new car sales in the country
[97][98] As of September 2013, the largest public charging networks exist in the capital cities of Perth and Melbourne, with around 30 stations (7 kW AC) established in both cities—smaller networks exist in other capital cities
An Australian standard for charging connectors does not exist as of September 2013
Since 2014 Mitsubishi is no longer importing the i-MiEV after slow sales due to the high price and due to competition from the more successful Outlander PHEV for battery components
Sales during the first quarter of 2014 totaled 42 units, representing a 0
015% market share of new car sales,[100] and during the first half of 2014 sales reached 114 units
[101] Deliveries of the Tesla Model S in Australia began in late 2014
[102] Deliveries of the BMW i3 also commenced at the end of 2014
Sales during 2014 totaled 1,228 units, up 288% from 2013
[103] The plug-in electric segment reached a 0
11% market share of total new car sales in the country, up threefold from 0
036% in 2013
[97][103] The surge in sales was due to the introduction of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, which sold 895 units during 2014, and became Australia’s top selling plug-in electric vehicle
[103] Cumulative sales in the Australian market since 2010 reached over 1,950 units by the end of December 2014, up from 304 units in 2013
[90][97][103][104][105][106]
A total of 246 Holden Volts had been sold in the country by mid April 2015, with the stock of the first generation almost empty
General Motors announced that it will not build the second generation Volt in right-hand-drive configuration, so the Holden Volt will be discontinued in the country when the remaining stock is sold out
[107] As of April 2015[update], the following models are available in the Australian market: Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S, both variants of the BMW i3 (REx and all-electric), BMW i8, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, and Porsche plug-in hybrids, 918 Spyder, Panamera and Cayenne
[107][108][109] Other models scheduled to be launched in the country include the Audi A3 e-tron and the Audi Q7 e-tron
As of December 2014[update], a total of 65 Model S cars were registered in New South Wales and only four in Victoria
[104] At the end of March 2015, registrations totaled 119 in New South Wales and 54 in Victoria
Although there were no sales figures reported for Tesla in other states, the combined sales of these two states alone were enough for the Model S to rank as the top selling all-electric car in the country for the first quarter of 2015, ahead of the BMW i3 (46) and the Nissan Leaf (31)
[104] Australia’s top selling plug-in electric vehicle for the first quarter of 2015 was the Outlander P-HEV, with 198 units sold,[110] and continued as the country’s all-time best selling plug-in with 1,093 units sold through March 2015 since its introduction in 2014
The following table presents registrations of highway-capable plug-in electric cars by year between 2010 and March 2015:
Sales of electric cars in the country rose from 97 units in 2009, to 116 in 2010, 425 in 2011, to 1,038 electric-drive vehicles by early October 2012
Of the latter, only 350 units were sold to individual customers
The three top selling plug-electric cars sold in 2012 through September 2012 are the Opel Ampera with 155 units, the Peugeot iOn with 95, and the Renault Fluence Z
with 86 units
[111] The Nissan Leaf sold 57 units during the first half of 2012,[112] and the Chevrolet Volt 24 units during the same period
[113] A total of 900 electric cars were sold in 2012
The Belgian government established a personal income tax deduction of 30% of the purchase price including VAT of a new electric vehicle, up to €9,510
Plug-in hybrids are not eligible
[115][116][117] This tax incentive will end on December 31, 2012
[111] There is also available a tax deduction up to 40% for investments in external recharging stations publicly accessible, to a maximum of €250
[115] The Wallonia regional government has an additional €4,500 eco-bonus for cars registered before December 31, 2011
A total of 117 electric drive vehicles were registered in Brazil in 2012, and 383 during the first ten months of 2013
These figures include both conventional hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in electric cars
Registrations during 2013 represent a 0
01% market share of new cars sales in the country through October 2013
[119] As of February 2013[update], there were only 70 electric cars registered in the country, of which, 68 are corporate cars, including 9 Nissan Leafs that are being demonstrated as taxis in São Paulo
As of September 2015[update], there were 2,214 hybrid and electric vehicles registered in the state of São Paulo, including passenger cars (723), buses, motorcycles and mopeds
Of these, 1,274 electric-drive vehicles are registered in São Paulo city, of which, 387 are passenger cars
In May 2010 the government put on hold a new policy to promote the introduction of electric cars, and a decision is still pending
Instead, plug-in electric cars and hybrid electric vehicles are subject to high taxes
As of February 2013[update] these included a 35% import tax, plus a 55% tax on industrialized products (IPI) imported outside Mercosur and Mexico, 13% contribution to social security (PIS/COFINS), and between 12 to 18% tax on transit of goods and services (ICMS), depending on the state, adding up to more than 120%
The tax burden results in an average final price of R$200,000 (US$100,000) for an electric car, and up to R$120,000 (US$60,000) for a regular hybrid
[121][122] As of March 2014[update], the IPI for imported hybrid and electric vehicles varies between 13% to 25%, but the government is considering to exempt electric cars from IPI and reduce the tax to hybrids to 2%, the same levy paid by small cars manufactured in Brazil
In March 2013, the first two Leafs out of a fleet of 15, were deployed in Rio de Janeiro to operate as taxis
This program is a partnership between the government of Rio de Janeiro City, Nissan do Brasil (NBA) and Petrobras Distribuidora
The first two electric taxis are available at the Santos Dumont airport stand, and charging is provided in two Petrobras service stations at the Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas and in the Barra da Tijuca neighborhood
The program is part of the city’s goal to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 16% by 2016 compared to emission levels of 2005
In June 2013, Nissan and the government of the State of Rio de Janeiro signed a memorandum of understanding to study the possibility of manufacturing the Nissan Leaf in the state, and the entire infrastructure necessary for running electric cars
The state government would provide fiscal incentives during the investment phase, and the electric car will be exempted from import taxes
In May 2014 São Paulo city passed a municipal law to exempt plug-in electric, hybrids and fuel cell vehicles from the city’s driving restriction scheme (Portuguese: rodízio veicular)
Also owners of electric drive cars with a purchase price up to R$150,000 (~ US$65,200) are entitled to a 50% reimbursement of the annual car ownership tax (IPVA) for five years up to a total of R$10,000 (~ US$4,300)
[127] The benefits went into effect in September 2015
In September 2014 the BMW i3 became the first plug-in electric car available in the country for retail customers
Due to the high import taxes, the i3 pricing starts at R$225,900 (US$98,500) for the all-electric model and at R$235
950 (US$102,600) for the model with the range-extender
The i3 is available only in eight cities: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Recife, and Joinville
According to Research and Markets, electric vehicles sales in the country are expected to reach 80,000 units annually in 2020
The research firm forecasts that the Brazilian electric vehicle market will likely be dominated by scooter and motorcycles
There were 18,451 highway legal plug-in electric cars registered in Canada as of December 2015[update], of which, 10,034 (54%) are all-electric cars and 8,417 (46%) are plug-in hybrids
[130] Until 2014 Canadian sales were evenly split between all-electric cars (50
8)% and plug-in hybrids (49
[51] The Chevrolet Volt, released in 2011, is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country, with cumulative sales of 5,415 units through December 2015, representing almost a third of all plug-in cars sold in the country
[50][131] Ranking second is the Tesla Model S with 3,590 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 3,198 units delivered as of December 2015[update]
[50][132] The Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car in Canada in 2015 with 2,010 units sold
A total of 1,969 plug-in cars were sold in 2012, up from 521 in 2011
Sales climbed 57
7% in 2013 to 3,106 units, and in 2014 were up 63
0% from 2013 to 5,062 units, reaching cumulative sales of 10,658 plug-in cars through December 2014
The market share of the plug-in electric car segment grew from 0
03% in 2011, to 0
12% in 2012, and reached 0
27% of new car sales in the country in 2014
British Columbia is the only place in the country where it is legal to drive a low-speed vehicle (LSV) electric car on public roads, although it also requires low speed warning marking and flashing lights
Quebec is allowing LSVs in a three-year pilot project
These cars will not be allowed on the highway, but will be allowed on city streets
In January 2009, Hydro-Québec and Mitsubishi signed an agreement to test 50 i-MiEV, the largest pilot test of electric cars in Canada ever
The test’s goal was to allow a better understanding of winter usage of the technology
BC-Hydro and Mitsubishi had previously tested a three-vehicle fleet in British Columbia
[133] In October 2010, Transport Canada and Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada announced a partnership to test the Mitsubishi i-MiEV
Transport Canada’s ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) Program tested two i-MiEVs in government facilities and in a variety of real-world conditions
This program aim was to evaluate the i-MiEV road performance and range
[134] Retail sales of the i-MiEV began in December 2011,[135][136]
The Nissan Leaf roll-out in Canada began with fleet customers on July 29, 2011,[137] and deliveries to individuals began in late September 2011
[138][139] As of December 2011[update], the Leaf was sold only through 27 Leaf-certified dealers for the entire country, and sales are limited to customers who live within a 65 km (40 mi) radius of one of those dealers
[140] Cumulative sales through December 2014 reached 1,965 units, and, as of December 2014[update], the Leaf ranks as the top selling all-electric car in the country
Retail sales of the Tesla Model S began in 2012, with 95 cars delivered that year
A total of 638 units were sold in 2013, and cumulative sales reached 1,580 units through December 2014, allowing the Model S to rank as the second best selling all-electric car in the country
[51][141] During 2014 the BMW i3, Kia Soul EV, BMW i8 and Porsche 918 Spyder were introduced in the Canadian market
The all-electric Renault Twizy 40 low-speed quadricycle was certified by Transport Canada in March 2016, and is scheduled to be released on the Canadian market by mid-2016
The following table presents registrations by year of all the highway-capable plug-in electric cars available in Canada between 2011 and December 2014
Canada’s National Advanced Transportation Center, an electric vehicle advocacy group, will attempt in April 2014 to break the Guinness World Record for the largest electric-vehicle parade
Purchase incentives for new plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) were established in Ontario consisting of a rebate between CA$5,000 (4 kWh battery) to CA$8,500 (17 kWh or more) (~US$5,050 to US$8,650), depending on battery size, for purchasing or leasing a new PEV after July 1, 2010
The rebates will be available to the first 10,000 applicants who qualify
[147][148] The province also introduced green-coloured licence plates for exclusive use of plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles
[147][149][150] These unique green vehicle plates allow PEV owners to travel in the province’s carpool lanes until 2015 regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle
Also, owners are eligible to use recharging stations at GO Transit and other provincially owned parking lots
Quebec began offering rebates of up to CA$8,500 (US$8,650) beginning on January 1, 2012, for the purchase of new plug-in electric vehicles equipped with a minimum of 4 kWh battery, and new hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for a CA$1,000 rebate
All-electric vehicles with high-capacity battery packs are eligible for the full CA$8,000 rebate, and incentives are reduced for low-range electric cars and plug-in hybrids
Quebec’s government earmarked CA$50 million(US$52
3 million) for the program, and the maximum rebate amount is slowly reduced every year until a maximum of CA$3,000 in 2015, but the rebates will continue until the fund runs out
There is also a ceiling for the maximum number of eligible vehicles: 10,000 for all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, and 5,000 for conventional hybrids
The Government of British Columbia announced the LiveSmart BC program which will start offering rebates of up to CA$5,000 per eligible clean energy vehicle commencing on December 1, 2011
The incentives will be available until March 31, 2013 or until available funding is depleted, whichever comes first
Available funds are enough to provide incentives for approximately 1,370 vehicles
Battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and plug-in hybrids with battery capacity of 15
0 kWh and above are eligible for a CA$5,000 incentive
Also effective December 1, 2011, rebates of up to CA$500 per qualifying electric vehicle charging equipment will be available to B
residents who have purchased a clean energy vehicle
The Chinese government adopted in 2009 a plan to leapfrog current automotive technology, and seize the growing new energy vehicle (NEV) market to become of the world leaders in manufacturing of all-electric and hybrid vehicles
The government’s political support for the adoption of electric vehicles has four goals, to create a world-leading industry that would produce jobs and exports; energy security to reduce its oil dependence which comes from the Middle East; to reduce urban air pollution; and to reduce its carbon emissions
In June 2012 the State Council of China published a plan to develop the domestic energy-saving and new energy vehicle industry
The plan set a sales target of 500,000 new energy vehicles by 2015 and 5 million by 2020
[156][157] As sales were much lower than initially expected, and most of the deployed NEV stock has been purchased by the government for public fleets, new monetary incentives were issued in 2014, and the national government set a sales target of 160,000 units for 2014
[158][159] Although the goal was not achieved, new energy vehicles sales in 2014 totaled 74,763 units, up 324% from 2013
The surge in demand continued in 2015, with a total of 331,092 NEVs sold in 2015, rising 343% year-on-year
[33][37] The China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) expects new energy vehicle sales to more than double 2015 sales and reach 700,000 NEVs in 2016
The Chinese government uses the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) to designate plug-in electric vehicles, and only pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are subject to purchase incentives
Initially, conventional hybrids were also included
[161] On June 1, 2010, the Chinese government announced a trial program to provide incentives for new energy vehicles of up to 60,000 yuan (~US$9,281 in June 2011) for private purchase of new battery electric vehicles and 50,000 yuan (~US$7,634 in June 2011) for plug-in hybrids in five cities
[162][163] The government set the goal to raise the country’s annual production capacity to 500,000 plug-in hybrid or all-electric cars and buses by the end of 2011, up from 2,100 in 2008
[155] A mid-September 2013 joint announcement by the National Development and Reform Commission and finance, science, and industry ministries confirmed that the central government will provide a maximum of US$9,800 toward the purchase of an all-electric passenger vehicle and up to US$81,600 for an electric bus
The subsidies are part of the government’s efforts to address China’s problematic air pollution
New energy vehicle sales between January 2011 and December 2015 totaled 444,447 units, of which, over 90% were sold during the last two years, with 331,092 units (74
5%) in 2015, and 74,763 (16
8%) in 2014
These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks
The Chinese stock of plug-in electric vehicles consist of 324,088 all-electric vehicles and 120,359 plug-in hybrids
[33][34][35][36][37] As of December 2014[update], a total of 83,198 plug-in electric passenger cars had been registered in the country since 2008
[7] With 176,627 plug-in passenger cars sold in 2015, China passed the U
, the top selling country in 2014, and became the world’s best-selling plug-in electric car country market in 2015
[5][38] As of December 2015[update], in terms of light-duty plug-in electric car stock, China ranks second after the United States, with cumulative sales of 258,328 plug-in cars, representing 21% of the global stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars
As of December 2015[update], China is the world’s leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric buses, plug-in trucks, particularly sanitation/garbage trucks
[3][39] Over 160,000 heavy-duty new energy vehicles have been sold between 2011 and 2015, of which, 123,710 (77
2%) were sold in 2015
[7][37] Sales of commercial new energy vehicles in 2015 consisted of 100,763 all-electric vehicles (81
5%)and 22,947 plug-in hybrid vehicles (18
[37] The share of all-electric bus sales in the Chinese bus market climbed from 2% in 2010 to 9
9% in 2012, and was expected to be closed to 20% for 2013
[165] As of December 2014[update], China had about 36,500 all-electric buses
[7] As of December 2015[update], China is the world’s largest electric bus market, and by 2020, the country is expected to account for more than 50% of the global electric bus market
A total of 8,159 new energy vehicles were sold in China during 2011, including passenger cars (61%) and buses (28%)
Of these, 5,579 units were all-electric vehicles and 2,580 plug-in hybrids
[34] Electric vehicle sales represented 0
04% of total new car sales in 2011
[166] Sales of new energy vehicles in 2012 reached 12,791 units, which includes 11,375 all-electric vehicles and 1,416 plug-in hybrids
[35] New energy vehicle sales in 2012 represented 0
07% of the country’s total new car sales
[167] During 2013 new energy vehicle sales totaled 17,642 units, up 37
9% from 2012 and representing 0
08% of the nearly 22 million new car sold in the country in 2013
Deliveries included 14,604 pure electric vehicles and 3,038 plug-in hybrids
[36][168] The top selling new energy car in China between 2011 and 2013 was the Chery QQ3 EV city car, with 2,167 units sold in 2011, 3,129 in 2012, and 5,727 in 2013
New energy vehicle sales in China during 2014 totaled 74,763 units, consisting of 45,048 all-electric vehicles, and 29,715 plug-in hybrids
Of these, 71% were passenger cars, 27% buses, and 1% trucks
[170] Pure electric vehicle sales increased 210% from 2013 while plug-in hybrid sales grew 880% from the previous year
The plug-in electric segment market share reached 0
32% of the 23
5 million new car sales sold in 2014
[33] The BYD Qin ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2014, with 14,747 units sold during the year,[170] and became the country’s top selling plug-in passenger car ever
[169] The Qin was followed by the all-electrics Kandi EV with 14,398, Zotye Zhidou E20, with 7,341 units, and BAIC E150 EV with 5,234
Domestically produced new energy vehicle sales in 2015 totaled a record 331,092 units, consisting of 247,482 all-electric vehicles and 83,610 plug-in hybrid vehicles, up 449% and 191% from 2014, respectively
[37] Sales of plug-in passenger cars, excluding imports, totaled 176,627 units in 2015, allowing China to rank as the world’s best-selling plug-in electric car country market in 2015
[5] The plug-in electric passenger car segment market share rose to 0
84% in 2015, up from 0
25% in 2014
[41] The top selling passenger models in 2015 were the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid with 31,898 units sold,[171] followed by the BYD Tang (18,375),[173] and the all-electrics Kandi EV (16,736), BAIC E150/160/200 EV (16,488), and the Zotye Z100 EV (15,467)
As of December 2015[update], with 31,898 units sold in 2015, the BYD Qin continued to rank as the all-time top selling plug-in passenger car in the country, with cumulative sales of 46,787 units since its introduction
[36][169][170][171] The BYD Qin was the world’s second best selling plug-in hybrid car in 2015 after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, and also ranked fifth among the world’s top selling plug-in electric cars in 2015
[175] BYD Auto ended 2015 as the world’s best selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with around 60,000 units sold, followed by Tesla Motors, with 50,580 units sold in 2015
The following table presents annual sales of the top selling new energy passenger cars by model with cumulative sales of about or over 3,000 units between 2011 and December 2015
The Mitsubishi i-MiEV was launched in May 2011 at a price of CLP28,9 million (US$60,000)
Initial availability was limited to 25 units
[188][189] The first public quick charging station in the country was opened in April 2011 in preparation for the arrival of the first i-MiEV electric cars
[190] As of August 2012[update], only 10 units have been sold
In August 2014 Mitsubishi withdrew the i-Miev from the market due to its low sales volume and introduced the Outlander PHEV at a lower price of US$54,000
[citation needed] Later that year BMW introduced their “i” range with the i3 (US$55,000) and i8 (US$225,000) plug-in cars;[citation needed] while Renault launched their whole Zero Emission (Z
) lineup, including the Fluence Z
sedan, the Kangoo utility van and Zoe city car
The French brand sold 22 electric vehicles in their first month in the Chilean market
[citation needed]
In 2013 the government established incentives to promote the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles
These include the exemption from the driving restriction scheme (Spanish: Pico y placa) in place in several Colombian cities such as Bogotá and Medellín
Also the government exempted all-electric and plug-in hybrid cars from import duties for three years, but limited to an annual quota of 750 plug-in cars of each type
All-electric vehicles are exempted 100% if the vehicle’s “Free On Board” (FOB) value is less than US$52,000, while plug-ins with an internal combustion engine of less than 3 liters, the import duty was reduced to 5%
The first South American all-electric taxi fleet made up of BYD e6 was launched at the beginning of 2013 in Bogotá, the capital city of Colombia after receiving operation approval by the Colombia Ministry of Transportation
These taxis are exempted from the driving restriction scheme
The program is an effort to improve the local air quality and set an example to other cities in the country
[193][194][195] In September 2013 a total of 45 e6 taxis of this pilot program were delivered
The e6 fleet are part of Colombia’s “BIOTAXIS Project
“[196] Another three BYD e6s were sent to Colceincias, Bogota’s Tech, Science and Innovation Administration
The BMW i3 was introduced in Colombia in late 2014 with pricing starting at COP$154
9 million (~US$49,000)
As of June 2015[update], i3 sales totaled 25 units
[192] The all-electric Renault Twizy quadracycle was introduced in the Colombian market in June 2015, at a price starting at COP$40 million (~US$12,650)
[197] Sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV were scheduled to begin in September 2015
Retail sales during 2014 totaled 52 pure electric cars and four plug-in hybrids
Lower sales than expected are the result of lack of charging infrastructure and the relatively high price of plug-in vehicles despite the reduced import duties
In addition to the charging stations used for the electric taxi fleet, there is only one public charging point in Bogotá
[192] As of June 2015[update], a totalof 126 plug-in electric vehicles have been sold in the country, mostly to corporate customers, and consisting of 43 BYD e6s (taxis), 35 Mitsubishi i-MiEVs, 25 BMW i3s, 19 Renault Twizys, and four Nissan Leafs
[192] A total of 203 Twizys had been sold as of October 2015[update], of which, 114 were sold in October,[198] capturing a 0
1% market share of new car sales, and placing Colombia at the forefront of electric vehicle market in Latin America, along with Costa Rica
As of January 2015[update], the Costa Rican stock of electric drive vehicles consisted of 477 hybrid electric vehicles and 2,229 plug-in electric vehicles, including passenger cars, buses, motorcycles, quadricycles and electric bicycles
With a registered fleet of 1,399,082 units at the end of 2014, electric vehicles represent a 0
16% share of the Costa Rican stock of motor vehicles
[200][201] Costa Rica is considered the leading country in electric vehicle adoption in Latin America
The first electric car to go on sale in the country was the REVAi, introduced in March 2009
The REVAi, powered by lead–acid batteries, sold 10 units during its first month in the market, 5 by corporate clients and 5 by individual customers
[202] The Mitsubishi i MiEV was launched in February 2011, with initial availability limited to 25 to 50 units
[203][204][205] According to Mitsubishi, Costa Rica was selected at the first market launch in the Americas due to its environmental record, despite the lack of government incentives for purchasing electric cars
As of February 2012[update], only a total of 61 all-electric cars had been registered in the country, with 31 purchased by individual customers, and 30 sold to embassies, universities, and corporate clients
Lack of charging infrastructure, there are no public charging stations in the country, and the need to introduce government incentives to reduce purchase taxes, were cited as the main causes for the low volume sales
[207] Nissan signed an agreement with the Costa Rican government in February 2012 to implement a pilot program as part of the introduction of the Nissan Leaf in the country
A task force was created through the agreement to assess the infrastructure requirements for the deployment of electric cars and the definition necessary government incentives for consumers to purchase electric cars
[208] Nissan planned to start Leaf sales by late 2013
In January 2013 BYD Auto signed an agreement with the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment and Energy to deploy 200 BYD e6 electric cars for use as “green taxis
” The electric cars will be exempt from import duties and the government has agreed to deploy charging stations in strategic locations in the city of San José
[210] Retail sales of the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid began in Costa Rica in November
[211][212] Retail sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV began in March 2015
Initially, the only existing fiscal incentive for the purchase of electric vehicles was the exemption from the consumption tax implemented in 2006, while conventional vehicles pay a 30% rate
A bill introduced in 2010 to reduce purchase and import duty taxes did not move forward in the Legislative Assembly
[207] Since October 2012, electric cars are exempted from the driving restriction implemented by plate number to restrict access to downtown San José, the country’s capital
In October 2015 a new bill was introduced into the Legislative Assembly, called, “Incentives and Promotion of the Electric Transport”, which would eliminate all taxation on all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles including import duties, consumption tax, and sales tax, which would result in a 44% reduction of the current retail price
The bill also proposes free parking at parking meters for electric vehicles, free designated parking at private and public facilities, and a five-year exemption from the annual road tax
The bill set a cap of 100,000 units to benefit from the law and the benefits would be in place for five-years, whichever comes first
Vehicles eligible for the tax exemptions includes passenger cars, passenger vans, motorcycles, buses and trains
The bill also promotes the development of charging infrastructure with goal to provide charging points every 80 km (50 mi) on national highways and every 120 km (75 mi) on the municipal road network
The proposed law also mandates all government agencies to replace 10% of their auto fleets with plug-in electric vehicles; and public transportation and taxi services are mandated to slowly replace their fleets with electric vehicles, with a minimum of 10% of plug-in electric cars for new taxi cab medallions (“ecotaxis”)
In addition, the law would provide income tax incentives for corporations that replace with plug-ins at least 10% of their fleets, with a minimum of three company cars
A small city car called 😄 assembled by Croatian company DOK-ING
[216] The name 😄 comes from oddly shaped rear lights (“X” shaped) and “D” beginning letter of the company’s name
The 😄 can travel over 250 km on a single charge with Lithium-ion batteries
Car’s base-cost will be only €10,000
Serial production is predicted to start mid-2012
As of November 2015[update], there were 440 electric cars registered in Croatia
[217] There are 71 charging stations available in 27 cities and towns
[217] In 2014, the Croatian government subsidized the purchase of electric cars with HRK 70,000 (c
€9300) for a fully electric vehicle, HRK 50,000 (c
€6600) for a plug-in hybrid, and HRK 30,000 (c
€4000) for other hybrid vehicles
The country currently generates about a third of its electric power from wind energy,[219] but some of it is exported to hydropower storage in Norway and elsewhere because there is currently no way for utilities to store the excess power inside Denmark
As of 2015[update] there are around 4,000 electric cars in Denmark
Better Place partnered with Denmark’s leading energy company, Dong Energy, in a €103 million (770 million Danish Kroner) investment to introduce electric cars and infrastructure to Denmark
With the Better Place model, Dong hoped to leverage the existing electric grid and electric vehicle batteries to harness and store the abundance of wind-generated power and distribute appropriately for transportation consumption
[221][222] The network commercial launch was scheduled for late 2011
The first battery switch station in Denmark, out of 20 planned to be deployed across the country until March 2012 as part of the network of charging infrastructure, was unveiled in June 2011 at Gladsaxe, near Copenhagen
[223] Sales of the Renault Fluence Z
, the electric car selected for the network, began in late 2011, and 234 units were sold in Denmark between 2012 and April 2013
[224] As of December 2012 there were 17 battery swapping stations fully operational in the country enabling Danish customers to drive anywhere across the country in an electric car
[225] On 26 May 2013, and following the decision of the Board of Directors of Better Place’s global company, Better Place Danmark A/S decided to begin bankruptcy proceedings
[226][227] Some of these stations were converted to hydrogen-producing fuel stations for hydrogen cars such as the Toyota Mirai
A taxi demonstration project in Copenhagen, including three Fluences and a Nissan Leaf, began in May 2013 scheduled to run through the second quarter of 2015
The demonstration was supported with a 12
5 million kroner government grant
As of February 2015[update], a total of 1,188 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Estonia
[citation needed] As of December 2013[update], there were 757 all-electric cars registered in Estonia, up from 619 pure electric cars registered through 2012
[16][230] With a total of 506 pure electric cars during 2012, Estonia ranked second after Norway in terms of EV penetration of the total auto fleet, with 1 electric car for every 1,000 registered cars
[16] However, the market share of the all-electric car segment dropped from 2
39% in 2012 to 0
69% in 2013, as registrations decreased to 138 units in 2013
[230] The top selling electric car in 2013 was the Nissan Leaf with 95 units sold
Estonia is the first country that completed the deployment of an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a minimum distance of between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi)
[17][18] As of December 2012[update], the nationwide network consisted of 165 fast chargers fully financed by the Estonian government, with an average separation on highways of 60 km (37 mi) with a higher density on urban areas
These public fast chargers are dual units, with a 50 kW CHAdeMO port and a 22 kW AC plug
On March 3, 2011, the government of Estonia confirmed the sale to Mitsubishi Corporation of 10 million carbon dioxide credits in exchange for 507 i-MiEV electric cars
The deal also included funding to build 250 fast charging stations in larger towns and main highways by 2013, and subsidies for the first 500 private buyers of any electric car approved by the European Union
[233][234] The first 50 i-MiEVs were delivered in October 2011 and this official fleet was assigned for use by municipal social workers
[235][236] During the first round of allocations of the electric cars, municipalities requested only 336 of the 507 i-MiEVs available
Several local authorities stated concerns about the electric car performance during harsh winter conditions, maintenance costs and the i-MiEV’ reliability on difficult countryside roads
Electric cars are also present in Finland, with companies such as Valmet Automotive (Fisker Karma and Garia A/S electric golf cart production) and also agreement of Think City car production,[239] Fortum (concept cars and infrastructure), Kabus (hybrid buses; part of Koiviston Auto Oy), BRP Finland (part of Bombardier Recreational Products), Lynx (snowmobile), Patria (military vehicles), European Batteries (Li-ion battery plant in Varkaus), Finnish Electric Vehicles (battery control systems), ABB, Efore, Vacon (electric motor technology production), Ensto (production of charging units), Elcat (electric vehicle production since the 1980s), production of electric car accessories, Suomen Sähköauto Oy (produces small electric cars), Oy AMC Motors Ltd
(produces and designs small electric cars), Raceabout[240] (specialist electric sport car with very few sales), Gemoto skooters from Cabotec, Resonate’s Gemini and Janus Scooters, Moto Bella Oy, Axcomotors, Randax, Visedo
Research related to electric cars is in progress at the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tekes
Sharing knowledge is also in progress: in Helsinki the Electric Motor Show was held from 10 to 12 September 2010
[241] The show will feature only cars, motorcycles, scooters, mopeds and microcars and components for them
Year 2010 is second year for Helsinki Electric motor show
The plan is to hold the show annually
[citation needed]
Basic charging infrastructure is already available all over Finland, used for engine pre-warming in the cold winters
Because of its climate – cold winters and warm summers – Finland is considered a convenient “test laboratory” for electric cars and many companies have made field tests in Finland
It has been said in Autobild 08/09 magazine that Fortum is developing the high-speed charging system
With a new kind of three-phase charging method electric cars can be charged in four minutes
A commercial product should be ready by 2011
There are also mines and metal refineries for lithium alloy in Finland
At the moment there are several mining projects under way such as the Keliber project
There are several electric car organisations in Finland, such as the Electric Vehicle Association of Finland and Electric Vehicles Finland
There is also a non-commercial electric car conversion organisation called Electric Cars – Now![243] that converts standard Toyota Corollas into Li-ion battery-powered electric cars
As of August 2009, more than 1,700 pre-orders for conversion Toyotas have been placed
The speciality in the Electric Cars – Now! project is that it is an open source project: anyone can start similar production anywhere they want, the benefits for the customer being open-source spare part coding and so on
The ideas and design are freely available from the Electric Cars – Now! organisation
Since January 2010, a total of 74,294 highway legal all-electric vehicles have been registered in France through December 2015
[5] As of September 2015[update], the plug-in stock consisted of 39,595 passenger cars and 18,893 utility vans
[244][245][246][247][248] Electric car registrations increased from 184 units in 2010 to 2,630 in 2011
[249] Sales in 2012 increased 115% from 2011 to 5,663 cars,[250] allowing France to rank 4th among the top selling EV countries, with an 11% market share of global all-electric car sales in 2012
[251] Registrations reached 8,779 electric cars in 2013, up 55
0% from 2012,[252] and the all-electric market share of total new car sales went up to 0
In addition, 5,175 electric utility vans were registered in 2013, up 42% from 2012,[252] and representing a market share of 1
4% of all new light commercial vehicles sold in 2013
[253] Sales of electric passenger cars and utility vans totaled 13,954 units in 2013,[252] capturing a combined market share of 0
65% of these two segments new car sales
[11] When accounting together sales of pure electric cars and light utility vehicles, France was the leading European all-electric market in 2012 and 2013
[11][252][254]
A total of 15,045 all-electric cars and vans were registered in 2014, up 7
8% from 2013
With 10,560 cars registered in 2014, up 20
3% from the previous year, sales of all-electric vehicles passed the 10,000 unit milestone for the first time
[247] This figure rises to 10,968 units if the BMW i3 with range extender is accounted for
[60] All-electric utility vans continued to be a significant share of the all-electric segment, with 4,485 units registered in 2014, but down 13
3% from 2013
[247] All-electric cars captured a 0
59% market share of the 1
7 million new car registered in France in 2014, while light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1
22% market share of their segment
Combined both segments represented a market share of 0
70% of new registrations in the country in 2014
[256] Light-duty all-electric vehicle sales achieved its best monthly volume on record ever in December 2014, with 2,227 units registered, twice the volume registered the same month in 2013
[247] The slow down in sales that took place in the French EV market during the first half of 2014, allowed Norway, with 18,649 new all-electric vehicles registered, to end 2014 as the top selling European market in the all-electric segment, with France ranking second
[257][258] A total of 14,833 light-duty all-electric vehicles were sold during the first nine months of 2015, up 48% from 2014 year-on-year
Sales during this period consisted of 11,779 all-electric cars and 3,104 all-electric utility vehicles
In France plug-in hybrids or rechargeable hybrids are classified and accounted together with conventional hybrid electric vehicles
Almost 1,500 plug-in hybrids were registered during 2012 and 2013
[259][260] Of these, a total of 666 plug-in hybrids were registered during 2012
The segment sales were led by the Toyota Prius PHV, with 413 registrations, followed by the Opel Ampera with 190
[259] During 2013 a total of 800 plug-in hybrids were sold, up 20% from 2012, with the Prius PHEV continuing as the segment leader with 393 units, followed by the Volvo V60 PHEV with 241 units and the Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid with 90 units
[260] When plug-in hybrids sales in 2013 are accounted for, a total of 14,762 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2013,[252][260] making the country to rank second in the plug-in European market after the Netherlands, which sold 28,673 plug-in electric vehicles in 2013
[11] Plug-in hybrid car registrations totaled 1,519 units in 2014, almost doubling registrations from a year earlier
[261] Plug-in hybrid sales were driven by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with 820 units registered in 2014, representing 54% of the segment registrations in France that year
[262] Between 2012 and 2014, cumulative plug-in hybrid registrations reached 2,985 units, rising cumulative French registrations of plug-in electric vehicles since 2005 to 46,590 units,[258][259][260][261] just ahead of the Netherlands (45,020),[263] and making France the European country where there were more plug-in electric vehicles on the road as of December 2014[update]
Electric car sales in the French market for 2011 were led by the Citroën C-Zero with 645 units followed by the Peugeot iOns with 639 vehicles, and the Bolloré Bluecar with 399 electric cars
[249] During 2012, all-electric car registrations in France were led by the Bluecar with 1,543 units, the C-Zero with 1,409, and the iOn with 1,335, together representing 76% of all electric car sales that year
[255] The Renault Kangoo Z
was the top selling utility electric vehicle with 2,869 units registered in 2012, representing a market share of 82% of the segment
[254][264] The Renault Twizy electric quadricycle, launched in March 2012, sold 2,232 units during 2012, surpassing the Bolloré Bluecar, the top selling highway-capable electric car, and ranked as the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Kangoo Z
During 2013, registrations of pure electric cars were led by the Renault Zoe with 5,511 units representing 62
8% of total electric car sales, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 1,438 units
[252] Registrations of all-electric light utility vehicles were led by the Renault Kangoo Z
with 4,174 units, representing 80
7% of the segment sales
[252] During 2013 several electric cars from major manufacturers were launched in France
Tesla Model S deliveries to retail customers began in September 2013,[267] the BMW i3 was launched in October, and the Volkswagen e-Up! in November
The Zoe continued leading all-electric vehicle registration in 2014, with 5,970 units registered, followed by the Kangoo Z
van with 2,657 registrations, and the Nissan Leaf ranked next with 1,600 units
[244][256] As of December 2014[update], the Renault Zoe is the French leader in the all-electric vehicle segment with 11,529 units registered since 2012, followed by the Kangoo Z
utility van with 10,483 units registered since 2010, the Bolloré Bluecar with 3,770 units, and the Nissan Leaf with 3,645 units
[244][252][256][264][266] Most units of the Bluecar are in operation for the Autolib’ car sharing service in Paris, and similar schemes in Lyon and Bordeaux
The following table presents registrations of highway-capable electric vehicles by type and electric car registrations by model between 2010 and December 2014
Until July 31, 2012, and under a Bonus-Malus system, a bonus was granted in France up to €5,000 for the purchase of new cars with CO2 emissions of 60 gr/km or less that benefited all-electric cars and any plug-in hybrid with such low emissions
Vehicles emitting up to 125 gr/km or less, such as hybrids and natural gas vehicles, were granted up to €2,000
[117][270] The incentive could not exceed 20% of the sales price including VAT, with the cost of the battery added if it is rented
Effective on August 1, 2012, the government increased the bonus for electric cars up to €7,000 but capped at 30% of the vehicle price including VAT
The price includes any battery leasing charges, and therefore, electric cars which need a battery leasing contract also are eligible for the bonus
An electric car sold for €23 333 including VAT is eligible for the maximum bonus of 7000 euros
The emission level for the maximum bonus was raised to 20 gr/km or less
Cars with emission levels between 20 to 50 gr/km are eligible to a bonus of up to €5,000
As of December 2015[update], there were around 50,000 plug-in electric cars registered in Germany
[276] About 73% of the segment registrations took place during the last two years, with 13,049 units registered in 2014, and 23,464 registered in 2015
[49][273] The official German definition of electric vehicles changed at the beginning of 2013, before that, official statistics only registered all-electric vehicles because plug-in hybrids were accounted together with conventional hybrids
As a result, the registrations figures for 2012 and older do not account for total new plug-in electric car registrations
[277] As of November 2014[update], the country has 4,800 public charging stations
The fleet of electric car registered in the country increased from 1,558 units in 2009 to 2,307 in 2010
The electric car stock in 2011 increased 96
8% from 2010 to 4,541 units registered, and up 56
7% from 2011 to 7,114 units in 2012, reaching 12,156 registered cars on 1 January 2014
[48] At the beginning of 2014 registrations of plug-in electric vehicles represented a 0
028% market share of all passenger vehicles registered in Germany
Most of the plug-in stock in the country was registered by corporate buyers
[48] The plug-in hybrid segment in the German market in 2014 experienced an explosive growth of 226
9% year-over-year, and the overall plug-in segment increased 75
5% from a year earlier
[272][273] The surge in sales continued in 2015, the plug-in hybrid segment grew 125
1% year-over-year, while the all-electric segment climbed 91
2% from the previous year
During 2011, a total of 2,154 pure electric cars were registered in the country, up from 541 units in 2010
[274] All-electric car sales for 2011 were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family with 683 i-MiEVs, 208 Peugeot iOns and 200 Citroën C-Zeros, representing 50
6% of all electric car registrations in 2011
[274] Plug-in hybrid registrations totaled 266 units in 2011, 241 Opel Amperas and 25 Chevrolet Volts, for a total of 2,420 plug-in electric vehicles registered in 2011
A total of 2,956 all-electric vehicles were registered in Germany during 2012, a 37
2% increase over 2011
[275] When 901 registered plug-in hybrids are accounted for, 2012 registrations climb to 3,857 units,[275][280] and sales of plug-in electric car represented a 0
12% market share of new passenger vehicles sold in the country in 2012
[281] Most sales in the country were made by corporate and fleet customers and 1,493 all-electric vehicles were registered by the automobile industry, as demonstration or research vehicles
[275] Registrations of plug-in electric-drive vehicles were led by the Opel Ampera extended-range electric car with 828 units, followed by the Smart electric drive with 734 units
[280][282] In addition, a total of 2,413 Renault Twizys were sold during 2012, making Germany the top selling European market for the electric quadricycle
A total of 7,436 new plug-in electric cars were registered in Germany in 2013, consisting of 6,051 all-electric cars and 1,385 plug-in hybrids
[272] Total registrations at the end of 2013 reached 12,156 units
[48] The Smart electric drive led new plug-in car registrations in 2013 with 2,146 units, followed by Renault Zoe with 1,019, the Nissan Leaf with 855 units, and the BMW i3 with 559
[285][286] During the first six months of 2014 registrations totaled 5,763 units,[287] with the BMW i3 as the segment leader with 1,378 units registered, followed by the Volkswagen e-Up! with 884 and the Smart ED with 645
[288][289] The i3 ended 2014 as the top selling plug-in electric car with 2,233 units registered
[284] Accounting for registrations of plug-in electric cars between January 2010 and June 2014, the leading model is the Smart electric drive with 3,959 units, with a significant number in use by carsharing services, followed by the BMW i3 with 1,937 units, Nissan Leaf with 1,693 units, Renault Zoe with 1,532, and Opel Ampera with 1,450 units
[274][275][279][280][285][286][288][289][290]
The following table presents registrations of the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric cars available for retail customers by year between 2010 and June 2014
In May 2010, under its National Plattform for Electric Mobility, Chancellor Angela Merkel set the goal to bring 1 million electric vehicles on German roads by 2020
[291][292] However, the government also announced that it will not provide subsidies to the sales of plug-in electric cars but instead it will only fund research in the area of electric mobility
[291] Electric vehicles and plug-ins in Germany are exempt from the annual circulation tax for a period of five years from the date of their first registration
The private use of a company car is treated as taxable income in Germany and measured at a flat monthly rate of 1% of the vehicle’s gross list price
So plug-in electric cars have been at a disadvantage since their price tag can be as much as double that of a car using a conventional internal combustion engine due to the high cost of the battery
In June 2013 German legislators approved a law that ends the tax disadvantage for corporate plug-in electric cars
The law, backdated to 1 January 2013, allows private users to offset the list price with €500 per unit of battery size, expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh)
The maximum offset was set at €10,000 corresponding to a 20 kWh battery
the amount one can offset will sink annually by €50 per kilowatt hour
In August 2014, the federal government announced its plan to introduce non-monetary incentives through new legislation to be effective by early 2015
The proposed user benefits include measures to privilege battery-powered cars, fuel cell vehicles and some plug-in hybrids, just like Norway does, by granting local governments the authority to allow these vehicles into bus lanes, and to offer free parking and reserved parking spaces in locations with charging points
[295][296] Not all plug-in hybrids will qualify for the benefits, only those with CO2 emissions of no more than 50 g/km or an all-electric range of over 30 km (19 mi) are eligible
[297] The range criteria will rise to 40 km (25 mi) starting in 2018
[298] The Bundestag passed the Electric Mobility Act in March 2015 authorizing local government to grant these non-monetary incentives, which are not mandatory
The law also provides issuing special license plates for electric vehicles to allow proper identification to avoid abuses of these privileges
As of March 2015[update], just 12 municipalities are considering to allow electric vehicles in the bus lanes in their jurisdiction
Most cities, including Hamburg and Munich, are not willing to allow electric cars in their bus lanes
According to the fourth progress report of the German National Platform for Electric Mobility, only about 24,000 plug-in electric cars are on German roads by the end of November 2014, well behind the target of 100,000 unit goal set for 2014
As a result, Chancellor Angela Merkel recognized in December 2014 that the government has to provide more incentives to meet the goal of having 1 million electric cars on the country’s roads by 2020
Among others, the federal government is considering to offer a tax break for zero-emission company cars, more subsidies to expand charging infrastructure, particularly to deploy more public fast chargers, and more public funding for research and development of the next generation of rechargeable batteries
At the beginning of 2016, German politicians from the three parties in Mrs
Merkel’s ruling coalition and and auto executives began talks to introduce a subsidy for green car buyers worth up to €5,000 (US$5,500) to boost sales of electric and plug-in hybrid cars
[302] As of February 2016[update], the German government proposal is for the auto industry to cover 40% of the cost of the purchase subsidy
Private buyers would get the full €5,000 subsidy, while corporate buyers would receive €3,000 for each electric car, and the program is expected to run until 2020, the deadline set to achieve the goal of 1 million electric cars on German roads
Incentives will fall by €500 each year
[303] In March 2016, Nissan Europe announced its support to the green car incentive and its commintment to double the government’s E-premium incentive when buying a Nissan electric car, with a reduction of the purchase price of the same amount of the subsidy
Nissan Center Europe CEO said “we remain convinced that the goal of one million electric cars by 2020 is still achievable
” According to Nissan if from now on electric car sales double every year until 2020, it is still posible to achieve the government goal
As of October 2015[update], there were 3,253 electric vehicles on the roads in Hong Kong, up from less than 100 units in 2010, and there have been deployed more than 1,200 electric vehicle charging points available for public use
[305] By the end of June 2015 there were about two electric cars per public charging stall
[306] As of October 2015[update], the Transport Department (TD) had approved 49 EV models, including 34 all-electric cars and motorcycles, and 15 models for public transport and commercial vehicles
Popular passenger and light-duty van models available for retail sales include the BMW i3, BYD e6, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV, Nissan Leaf, Nissan e-NV200, Renault Fluence Z
, Renault Kangoo Z
, Renault Zoe, Smart ED, Tesla Model S, Tesla Roadster, and Volkswagen e-Golf
[305] During the first quarter of 2015 Hong Kong had world’s third largest EV market share, with 2
3% of new vehicle registrations during this quarter
Only Norway and the Netherlands had a larger EV share
The Government of Hong Kong has been promoting the use of electric vehicles through several measures
First Registration Tax for EVs is waived until the end of March 2017
In addition, enterprises which procure EVs are allowed 100% profits tax deduction for the capital expenditure on EVs in the first year of procurement
A HK$300 million Pilot Green Transport Fund was put in place since March 2011 for application by transport operators and non-profit-making organizations providing services to their clients and goods vehicle owners, encouraging them to try out innovative green and low carbon transport technologies (including EVs)
The ultimate policy objective of the Government is to have zero emission buses running across the territory
To this end, the Government allocated HK$180 million for franchised bus companies to purchase 36 single-deck electric buses for trial runs to assess their operational efficiency and performance under the local conditions
The trial is expected to commence progressively by end of 2015
Sales of electric cars took off in Hong Kong after the introduction of the Tesla Model S in July 2014,[306][307] and one year later, the Model S is the top selling all-electric car in the territory with about 70% of the registered stock of EVs (about 1,720 units)
Model S sales gained traction thanks to the tax waiver, which makes the Model S price very competitive in the luxury car segment, about half the price of other high-end models
[306] According to Tesla, as of June 2015[update], Hong Kong has the world’s highest density of Tesla superchargers, with eight stations comprising a total of 36 supercharger stalls
This infrastructure allows most Model S owners to have a supercharger within 20 minutes’ drive
The group 2012 – New beginning in Iceland was planning to convert all vehicles in the country to electric by 2012, the first to do so
[241][309] As of 2012[update] this has not happened
During 2013 a total of 72 plug-in electric cars were sold in Iceland representing a 0
94% market share of new car sales during the year
The Nissan Leaf led sales with 29 units sold in 2013, followed by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Prius PHEV with 13 registrations each, Tesla Model S with 8, Chevrolet Volt 4, Citroen C-Zero 3 and Opel Ampera 2 units
In India, Mahindra Reva e2o electric car was introduced in March 2013
It operates on lithium ion battery with 100 km range for 4 hours of charging
In addition to this, there are several other companies involved in making electric bikes like Hero and Ampere
The Indian government admitted that it has not implemented schemes/policy initiatives to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles
This information was given on December 2, 2014 by Minister of State in the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises G
Siddeshwara in a written reply to Lok Sabha question
But the Minister also admitted that the scheme is only on paper and no policy initiative has been undertaken to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles in India
The Minister said in his reply that a Scheme for Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in India, under the National Electric Mobility Mission 2020 has been proposed
The scheme envisages to encourage progressive induction of reliable, affordable and efficient electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country that meet consumer performance and price expectations, through Government-Industry collaboration for promotion and development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities, required infrastructure, consumer awareness and technology; thereby helping India to emerge as a leader in the xEV Two Wheeler and Four Wheeler market in the world by 2020
The Mission aims at providing a clean transportation system to the people that is not dependent on gasoline based fossil fuel, he said
As of December 2014[update], the plug-in electric car stock in India consists of 2,689 vehicles
Israel was the first nation in the world that partnered with Better Place to have an electric car infrastructure
Shai Agassi, former CEO of Better Place claimed that in Israel by 2016, plus or minus a year, more than 50% of cars sold will be electric
[314] Better place reached agreements with Renault-Nissan and the Israeli government to begin the first phases of the company’s efforts to deploy the world’s first integrated electric car network
Israel was considered a viable site for this innovative endeavor due to the country’s relatively small size and the fact that approximately 90% of the nation’s car owners drive less than 40 mi (60 km) a day
[315] Israel enacted policies to create a tax differential between zero-emission vehicles and traditional cars, to accelerate the transition to electric cars
Better Place designed an infrastructure consisting of 500,000 charging stations and almost 200 battery-exchange stations
In December 2008, Better Place revealed its first plug-in parking lot in Tel Aviv
Additionally, in May 2009, the company unveiled its patented battery swap system, which is designed for drivers taking longer road trips who lack the time needed to recharge their own battery
[317] The first battery-swapping station in Israel, in Kiryat Ekron, near Rehovot, was deployed in March 2011
The station was the first of approximately 40 planned stations to begin operating in the near term
The battery exchange process took five minutes
[318] The company also erected over 1,000 functional charging spots for the cars
[318] Orders for the Renault Fluence ZE, the car selected for the Better Place network, began in July 2011
The first deliveries of the Renault Fluence Z
took place on the 22nd of January 2012 and around 100 electric cars were allocated among Better Place employees
[312][313] Retail customer deliveries began in the second quarter of 2012
[320] As of mid September 2012, there were 21 operational battery-swap stations open to the public in Israel
[321] In October 2012, Better Place signed a deal with Elco to supply 125 Renault Fluence ZEs through 2012 and 2013
[322] As of December 2012[update], a total of 518 cars had been sold in the country,[323] and during the first four months of 2013, 422 units were sold, bringing the total to 940
Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013
The company’s financial difficulties were caused by the high investment required to develop the charging and swapping infrastructure, about US$850 million in private capital, and a market penetration significantly lower than originally predicted by Shai Agassi
[325][326] Under Better Place’s business model, the company owns the Fluence Z
batteries, so the court liquidator will have to decide what to do with customers who do not have ownership of the battery and risk being left with a useless car
In November 2008, the Department of Transport announced the Electric Transport Plan which calls for 10% of all vehicles to be electric by 2020
Government officials reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its Japanese partner Nissan to boost the use of electric cars
Eamon Ryan Ireland’s former Minister for Communications, Energy and Natural Resources repeatedly emphasised the importance of the electric car within the Irish context
The Electricity Supply Board has actively supported this call and sees electric vehicles as a key part of its strategy with regard to wind power in the Republic of Ireland
Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI) is currently looking at a number of pilot projects
More information on incentives was expected to come to light in the 2010 Irish Budget
[citation needed]
The Irish government has committed to getting enough electric passenger vehicles on the road by 2020 to account for 10% of all vehicles (a projected 230,000 electric vehicles)
[328] As of September 2014[update], plug-in electric car purchasers are eligible for a government credit worth up to €5,000 (about US$6,500)
Vehicle Registration Tax (VRT), up to €5,000 is also waived for electric cars
Also, all-electric car owners pay the lowest rate of annual road tax, which is based on emissions
In addition, the first 2,000 electric cars registered in Ireland are eligible for installation of a free home-charging points worth about €1,000 (about US$1,300)
[329] Sales of all-electric cars in Ireland increased more than four times in 2014, with 222 units sold, up from 51 sold in 2013
[330] The number of electric cars owned by individuals totaled about 500 by mid-2014
Despite being a G8 country, in 2015 sales of electric vehicles in Italy still amounted to a modest 0
1% of the total car sales in the country
This is mainly due to a lack of commitment by the government (incentives have been discontinued in 2014), a meager public charging infrastructure and timid reception by the public, which still considers BEVs too expensive and unsuitable
The top five selling electric vehicles in 2015 were the Nissan Leaf (390 units sold), the Renaul Zoe (326), the Citroen C-zero (164), the Tesla Model S (134) and the Smart ForTwo (115)
As of December 2015[update], the stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Japan is the third largest in the world after the United States and China, with about 130,000 highway legal plug-in electric vehicles sold in the country since 2009
[5][7] During 2012, global sales of pure electric cars were led by Japan with a 28% market share of total sales, followed by the United States with a 26% share
Japan ranked second after the U
in terms of its share of plug-in hybrid sales in 2012, with a 12% of global sales
[251] A total of 30
587 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles were sold in Japan in 2013
[24] In 2014 the segment sales remained flat with 30,390 units sold, and a market share of 1
06% of total new car sales in the country (kei cars not included)
The Japanese electric vehicle charging infrastructure climbed from only 60 public charging stations in early 2010,[333] to 1,381 public quick-charge stations as of December 2012[update], representing the largest deployment of fast chargers in the world
The number of non-domestic slow charger points increased to around 300 units
[251] Japan also is the country with the highest ratio of quick charging points to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV), with a ratio of 0
030 as of December 2012[update]
The Japanese government has set up a target to deploy 2 million slow chargers and 5,000 fast charging points by 2020
The first electric car available in the Japanese market was the Mitsubishi i MiEV, launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009
[333][334] Retail sales to the public began in April 2010
[335][336][337] Cumulative sales since July 2009 reached 10,423 i-MiEVs through December 2014
[338][339] Sales of the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV electric van began in December 2011, and a total of 5,560 units have been sold through December 2014
[339] A truck version of the Minicab MiEV was launched in January 2013,[340] with sales of 731 units through December 2014
[339] Mitsubishi also launched in January 2013 a plug-in hybrid version of the Outlander, called the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, becoming the first SUV plug-in hybrid in the world’s market
[341] The Outlander P-HEV sold 9,608 units during 2013, ranking as the second top selling plug-in electric car in Japan after the Nissan Leaf
[342][343] Again in 2014, the Outlander plug-in hybrid ranked as the second best selling plug-in car in Japan, with 10,064 units sold
[339][344] Sales of the Outlander P-HEV totaled 19,674 units through December 2014
[339] As of December 2014[update], Mitsubishi has sold 36,386 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Japan since July 2009
Sales of the Nissan Leaf began on December 22, 2010, when the first 10 Leaf were delivered at the Kanagawa Prefecture
[345][346] Sales of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid began in January 2012, and a total of 19,100 units have been sold through September 2014
[347] The Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid is available in Japan, and as of December 2013[update], ranked as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the domestic market
[348] Retail deliveries of the Tesla Model S began in Japan in September 2014
Sales of the plug-in electric drive segment in 2013 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 13,021 units sold, up from 11,115 in 2012
[350] The Leaf continued as the market leader in 2014 for the fourth year running with 14,177 units sold, followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 10,064 units, together representing about 80% of the plug-in segment sales in Japan in 2014
[339][344][351]
In 2015 the Outlander plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in electric car in the country with 10,996 units sold, followed by the Leaf with 9,057 units
[352] Japan is the Outlander P-HEV largest country market with 30,668 units sold through December 2015
[353] Since December 2010, Nissan has sold 57,699 Leafs by the end of December 2015, allowing the all-electric car to rank as the all-time best-selling plug-in car in the country
The following table presents sales for the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles since July 2009 through December 2014, totaling sales of over 104,500 plug-in electric vehicles, of which about 63% are all-electric vehicles
[338][339][347][355][356]
In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the “Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure” that went into effect on June 19, 2009, but retroactive to April 10, 2009
[357] The program established tax deductions and exemptions for environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles, according to a set of stipulated environmental performance criteria, and the requirements are applied equally to both foreign and domestically produced vehicles
The program provided purchasing subsidies for two type of cases, consumers purchasing a new passenger car without trade-in (non-replacement program), and for those consumers buying a new car trading a used car registered 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage program)
Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles without scrapping a used car are 100,000 yen (~US$1,100) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 50,000 yen (~US$550) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle
Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 200,000 yen (~US$2,100) to 900,000 yen (~US$9,600)
[357][359][360]
Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles in the case of owners scrapping a vehicle at least 13 years old are 250,000 yen (~US$2,700) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 125,000 yen (~US$1,300) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle
Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 400,000 yen (~US$4,300) to 1,800,000 yen (~US$19,000)
[357][359][360]
All incentives for new purchases with or without trading were applicable in Japan’s fiscal year 2009, from April 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010
In October 2009 Nissan reached an agreement with the local government of Mexico City, by which 500 Leafs would be delivered by 2011 for use of government and corporate fleets
In exchange, recharging infrastructure was to be deployed by the city government, and an exemption from the ownership tax is being pursued
[361][362] The city government of Mexico D
also reached an agreement with Nissan in November 2010 in order for the first 100 Leafs to be introduced in the country to operate as part of the capital’s taxi fleet
[363][364] The first Leafs destined for the taxi fleet were delivered by late September 2011,[365][366] allowing the country to become the first Latin American market where the Leaf is available
As of February 2013[update], there were in the country about 70 Leafs deployed as taxis, 50 in Aguascalientes and 20 in Mexico City
[368] The Aguascalientes program began in May 2012, and its implementation included the deployment of a garage with 58 charging points, the largest of its kind in the world
[369] Carrot Mexico, a carsharing company operating in Mexico City, acquired 3 Leafs which are available to their 1,600 customers
[370] As of October 2012[update], there were no government fiscal incentives available to lower the purchase price of electric cars, neither preferential electricity rates for electric car owners
However, electric cars are exempted from the driving restriction scheme implemented by plate number to restrict access to Mexico City to improve its air quality
Retail sales of the Nissan Leaf began in June 2014, with availability initially limited to Mexico City
[371] Deliveries to retail customers began in August 2014
[372] The BMW i3 and i8 are also available in the country
Retail deliveries of the i3 began in Mexico City in late September 2014
The second generation Volt was released for retail customers in December 2015
Pricing starts at 638,000 pesos (~US$36,880), and it is available in Mexico City, Monterrey, Guadalajara, Querétaro, and Puebla
[375] Also in December 2015, retail sales of the Tesla Model S began in Mexico City
Initially, no Supercharger stations are available in the country
As of December 2015[update], the Netherlands has Europe’s largest fleet light-duty plug-in vehicles and has the world’s fourth largest stock after the U
, China and Japan
The Netherlands was the world’s third best-selling country market for light-duty plug-in vehicles in 2015
[5] As of December 2015[update], a total of 88,991 highway legal plug-in electric vehicles were registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 78,163 range-extended and plug-in hybrids, 9,368 pure electric cars, and 1,460 all-electric light utility vans
When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 90,275 units
[378] The country’s electric vehicle stock reaches 122,563 units when mopeds (3,610), electric bicycles (28,459), and microcars (219) are accounted for
The Netherlands is among the country’s with the highest EV market penetration in the world
Registrations of plug-in electric car represented a 0
57% share of total new car registrations in the country during 2011 and 2012
[379] During 2013 plug-in electric passenger car registrations totaled 22,415 units, climbing 338% from 2012, the highest rate of growth of any country in the world in 2013
[11][377] The segment market share in 2013 surged almost ten times from 2012 to 5
34% new car sales in the country during that year,[380] the world’s second highest in 2013 after Norway (5
[11] The rapid growth of segment during 2013, allowed the Netherlands to reach a market penetration for plug-in vehicles of around 1
71 vehicles per 1,000 people, second only to Norway (4
[11] After falling to 3
9% in 2014, with 43,769 plug-in passenger cars registered in 2015, the segment market share rose to a record 9
7% of new car sales in the Dutch market in 2015, the second highest after Norway (22
In November 2013, a total of 2,736 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs were sold, making the plug-in hybrid the top selling new car in the country that month, representing a market share of 6
8% of all the new cars sold
[382][383] Again in December 2013, the Outlander P-HEV ranked as the top selling new car in the country with 4,976 units, representing a 12
6% market share of new car sales, contributing to a world record plug-in vehicle market share of 23
8% of new car sales
[384][385] The Netherlands is the second country, after Norway, where plug-in electric cars have topped the monthly ranking of new car sales
[382][383][385] The strong increase of plug-in car sales during the last months of 2013 was due to the end of the total exemption of the registration fee for corporate cars, which is valid for 5 years
From January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee
[386] After the change in the registration fee incentive, sales in 2014 fell significantly
[387] A total of 15,646 plug-in electric cars were sold in 2014, down from 22,542 in 2013, with sales led by the Outlander P-HEV with 7,712 units registered, representing 49
3% of the segment sales in 2014
The top selling all-electric car in 2014 was the Tesla Model S with 1,533 units
A total of 42,367 plug-in electric cars were sold in 2015
The top 5 best-selling plug-in electric cars in 2015 were all plug-in hybrids, led by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,757), followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (8,183), Audi A3 e-tron (4,354), Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (3,851), and Volkswagen Passat GTE (2,879)
The top selling all-electric car was the Tesla Model S (1,842)
[390] Plug-in car sales achieved its best monthly volume on record ever in December 2015, with about 15,900 units sold, and allowing the segment to reached a record market share of about 23%
The surge in plug-in car sales was due to reduction of the registration fees for plug-in hybrids
From January 1, 2016, all-electric vehicles continue to pay a 4% registration fee, but for a plug-in hybrid the fee rises from 7% to 15% if its CO2 emissions do not exceed 50 g/km
The rate for a conventional internal combustion car is 25% of its book value
As of December 2015[update], the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV continues as the all-time top-selling plug-in car in the country with 24,506 registered
Ranking second is the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (14,470), followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (8,806), Opel Ampera (4,947 units), Tesla Model S (4,832), and Audi A3 e-tron (4,657)
[393] A total of 78,163 plug-in hybrids out of 87,531 passenger plug-in electric vehicles were registered in the Netherlands as of 31 December 2015[update], meaning that plug-in hybrids dominate the Dutch market with a share of 89
3% of the country’s highway legal plug-in electric car stock
The following table presents registrations by year for the top 10 selling plug-in electric cars since 2009 through December 2015
Considering the potential of plug-in electric vehicles in the country, the Dutch government set s target of 15,000 electric vehicles on the roads in 2015, 200,000 vehicles in 2020 and 1 million vehicles in 2025
[377][404] Instead of direct purchase subsidies for electric vehicles in the Netherlands, the government established total exemption of the registration fee and road taxes, which translated in savings of approximately €5,324 for private car owners over four years,[405][406] and €19,000 for corporate owners over five years
[407] Other vehicles including hybrid electric vehicles were also exempt from these taxes if they emit less than 95 g/km for diesel-powered vehicles, or less than 110 g/km for gasoline-powered vehicles
[405] The exemption from the registration tax ended, and from January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee
Buyers also have access to parking spaces in Amsterdam reserved for battery electric vehicles, so they avoid the current wait for a parking place in Amsterdam, which can reach up to 10 years in some parts of the city
[408] Free charging is also offered in public parking spaces
[409] Other factors contributing to the rapid adoption of plug-in electric vehicles are the relative small size of the country, which reduces range anxiety (the Netherlands stretches about 100 mi (160 km) east to west); a long tradition of environmental activism; high gasoline prices (US$8
50 per gallon as of January 2013), which make the cost of running a car on electricity five times cheaper; and also some EV leasing programs provide free or discounted gasoline-powered vehicles for those who want to take a vacation driving long distances
With all of these incentives and tax breaks, plug-in electric cars have similar driving costs than conventional cars
[409] Initially, sales of plug-in electric car were lower than expected, and during 2012 the segment captured a market share of less than 1% of new car sales in the country
[409] As a result of the end of the total exemption of the registration fee, the segment sales peak at the end of 2013,[410] and plug-in electric car sales reached a market share of 5
34% of new car sales in 2013
There were 1,015 plug-in electric cars registered in the country by mid-March 2016, including used imports
[411] Of the 769 plug-in electric vehicles registered as of September 2015[update], 419 were plug-in hybrid vehicles, and approximately 45 were manufactured prior to 2005 and some of these are conventional vehicles converted to electric
[412] The number of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in the fleet started increasing from 2009 as models such as the Mitsubishi i-MiEV were released to the market, and accelerated from 2015 as imported second-hand Japanese Nissan Leafs provided a cheaper purchase method
As of February 2016[update], a total of 414 Nissan Leafs have been registered in the country, of which, 86 are new units and 328 used imports
[413] Nissan stopped Leaf sales in November 2015
[411] New Zealand has a single, minor government subsidy for electric vehicles; an exemption from paying road user charges between 2009 and 2020
As of December 2015[update], a total of 74,883 new plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway
[10] Norway’s fleet of electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because almost 100% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower
[415] Norway, with 5
2 million people, is the country with the largest EV ownership per capita in the world, with Oslo recognized as the EV capital of the world
[12][416][417][418]
In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over one in every 100 registered passenger cars is plug-in electric
[67] The segment’s market penetration reached 2% in March 2015,[14] and it passed 3% in December 2015
[15][69] The Norwegian plug-in electric vehicle market share of new car sales is the highest in the world, rising from 1
6% in 2011, to 3
1% in 2012,[419] and reached 5
6% of new car sales in 2013
[13] Combined sales of new and used plug-in electric vehicles captured a 13
8% market share of total passenger car registrations in 2014,[24] and a record market share of 23
4% in 2015, almost one in four new cars registered in the country in 2015
Also, Norway was the first country in the world to have electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking
The Tesla Model S has been the top selling new car four times, twice in 2013, first in September and again in December,[420][421] and one more time in March 2014,[422] and again in March 2015
[423][424][425] The Nissan Leaf has topped the monthly new car sales ranking twice, first in October 2013 and again in January 2014
[426][427][428] In March 2014 the Tesla Model S also broke the 28-year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source, with 1,493 units sold, surpassing the Ford Sierra, which sold 1,454 units in May 1986
[422][429] In March 2015 another record was set, with three all-electric cars ranking as the top 3 selling new cars in the country, the Tesla Model S with 1,140 units, the Volkswagen e-Golf with 956 (out of a total of 1,421 units sold by the Golf nameplate), and the Nissan Leaf with 526
[423][424][425]
The Parliament of Norway set the goal to reach 50,000 zero emission vehicles by 2018
Among the existing incentives, all-electric cars are exempt in Norway from all non-recurring vehicle fees, including purchase taxes, which are extremely high for ordinary cars, and 25% VAT on purchase, together making electric car purchase price competitive with conventional cars
[430] Pure electric vehicles are also exempt from the annual road tax, all public parking fees, and toll payments (including domestic ferries), as well as being able to use bus lanes
These incentives were set to be in effect until the end of 2017 or until the goal of 50,000 all-electric cars registered in the country was achieved
[417] Sales of plug-in hybrids have had a much smaller market penetration than pure electric car sales because they are not eligible for the same tax exemptions and other government incentives enacted for electric cars
[430][431][432] However, in June 2013 the government approved a tax reduction for plug-in hybrids effective since July 2013, that improved PHEV sales
The target of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015, more than two years earlier than expected
[434][435] The two purchase tax exemptions applicable to electric vehicles had cost the government about 3 billion krone (around US$480 million) in lost revenue just in 2014, and up to 4 billion krone (around US$640 million) if all the other benefits are accounted for
In May 2015 the Government decided to keep the existing incentives through 2017, and the political parties in Parliament agreed to reduced and phase out some of the incentives
Beginning in January 2018, electric car owners will be required to pay half of the yearly road license fee and the full rate as of 2020
The value-added tax (VAT) exemption for electric cars will end in 2018, but replaced by a new scheme, which may be subjected to a ceiling that could be reduced as technology develops
The agreement also gives local authorities the right to decide whether electric cars can park for free and use public transport lanes
In February 2016, the government opened for public discussion until 1 July 2016 the proposed National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP)
Among others, the NTP sets the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles, this is, all-electric and hydrogen vehicles
By 2030, heavy-duty vans, 75% of new long-distance buses, and 50% of new trucks must be zero emission vehicles
[439][440][441]
As of December 2015[update], a total of 74,883 new plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway
[10] Sales of used imports in Norway are significant, and as of December 2015[update], over 11,500 used plug-in vehicles from neighboring countries had been imported, mainly pure electric cars
Registrations of used all-electric cars totaled 2,086 units in 2013, 3,063 in 2014 and 5,122 in 2015
[43][442][443] In addition, about 1,300 used electric cars were imported into Norway before 2013
As a result, when used imports are accounted for, the Norwegian plug-in electric fleet rises to 84,401 registered plug-in electric vehicles as of December 2015[update], consisting of 74,024 all-electric passenger and light-duty vehicles, and 10,377 plug-in hybrids
[43][44] As of 30 September 2013[update], the total plug-in electric registered stock included 1,456 heavy quadricycles, such as the Kewet/Buddy, Th!nk City, and the REVAi
These city cars are entitled to the special “EL” licensed plates reserved for Norwegian electric vehicles
Plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 10,769 units in 2013, representing 6
9% of total car registrations in 2013
[13] During 2013, the Leaf continued as the top selling plug-in electric car, with 4,604 new units sold, followed by the Tesla Model S with 1,986 units (25
2%), and the Volkswagen e-Up! with 580 units (7
During its first full month in the market, the Model S was the top selling car in Norway during September 2013 with 616 units delivered, representing a market share of 5
1% of all the new cars sold in the country, and becoming the first electric car to top the new car sales ranking in any country ever
[420][447][448] In October 2013, and for a second month in a row, an electric car, the Nissan Leaf, was the best selling car in the country
The Leaf sold 716 units, representing a 5
6% of new car sales that month
[426][427] In December 2013 the Model S, with 553 units sold and a 4
9% market share, was the top selling new car in the country for the second time in the year
In January 2014, the Leaf topped for a second time the ranking of top selling new cars in Norway, with 650 units sold, representing a 5
7% of new car sales that month
[428] The Model S topped the monthly sales ranking for a third time in March 2014, with 1,493 units sold, capturing a 10
8% market share of new car sales that month, and contributing to a record market share for the all-electric car segment of 20
3% of total new car sales
[67][422][449]
A total of 23,390 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2014, consisting of 18,094 new all-electric cars, 3,063 used imported all-electric cars, 1,678 new plug-in hybrid cars and 555 new all-electric vans
[442] Combined sales of new and used plug-in electric vehicles captured a 13
84% market share of total passenger car registrations in 2014
[24] Sales of the new all-electric car segment reached a market share of 12
[450] New all-electric passenger car registrations were up 129
5% from 2013, and the plug-in hybrid segment grew 411
6% from a year earlier
[442] Norway ended 2014 as the top selling European country in the light-duty all-electric market segment, with 18,649 passenger cars and utility vans registered, surpassing France (15,046), Germany (8,804) and the UK (7,730)
[451] Norway accounted for a third of all European all-electric car sales in 2014
[452] Plug-in electric car sales in 2014 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 4,781 new registrations, followed by Tesla Model S with 4,040 units[442]
Record registrations and the highest monthly market share ever were registered in March 2015, with 3,391 new all-electric cars sold that month representing 23
4% of new car sales, and 357 plug-in hybrids representing a market share of 2
52% that month, together reaching a combined PEV market share of 26
[423][453] March sales set another record, as three all-electric cars ranked as the top 3 selling new cars in the country, the Tesla Model S with 1,140 units, the Volkswagen e-Golf with 956 (out of a total of 1,421 units sold by the Golf nameplate), and the Nissan Leaf with 526
[423][424][425]
A total of 39,632 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2015, up from 23,408 in 2014 (69
New plug-in sales totaled 34,455 units, consisting of 25,779 pure electric cars, 7,964 plug-in hybrids, and 712 all-electric utility vans
A total of 5,177 used imports were registered, of which, 5,122 were pure electric cars
[43] The combined sales of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 23
4% of all new passenger cars sold in 2015, with the all-electric car segment reaching 17
1%, up from 12
5% in 2014, while the plug-in hybrid segment reached 5
2%, up from 1% in 2014
[5][455] The VW e-Golf, with 8,943 units sold, was the best-selling plug-in electric car in Norway in 2015, ahead of the Tesla Model S (4,039) and the Nissan Leaf (3,189)
[455] The e-Golf variant represented 54
6% of total new VW Golf nameplate sales in the country in 2015
[456] The top selling plug-in hybrid in 2015 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,875 units, followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE with 2,000, and the Audi A3 e-tron with 1,684 units, together representing 84% of the plug-in hybrid segment
As of December 2015[update], the Nissan Leaf continued to rank as the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with a total of 15,245 new Leafs registered since 2011
[442][445][446][456] In addition, a significant number of used imported Leafs from neighboring countries had been registered in the country, raising the stock of registered Leafs to over 20,000 units, meaning that more than 10% of Leafs sold in the world were on Norwegian roads by November 2015
The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in vehicles was achieved in February 2016 with 28
5% of new car sales; the all-electric car segment had a 15
8% market share among passenger cars, while the plug-in hybrid segment had a 12
[457] The previous record month was March 2015 with 26
[423] With 3,936 used and new light-duty plug-in vehicles registered in February 2016,[457] the number of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Norwegian roads rose to over 90,000 units
The following table presents registrations of the top 15 selling plug-in electric cars and utility vans by model per year since 2008 through December 2015
Figures between 2008 and 2013 correspond to the combined number of first registrations by year accounting for both, new and used imports
Figures for 2014 and 2015 correspond only to new car registrations
The breakdown between new and used import for the Nissan Leaf and the Kia Soul EV is shown because these are the two PEV models with the largest share of used import registrations
The first electric car in the country was launched at Silliman University by Insular Technologies in August 2007
[469][470] In some major urban cities in the Philippines like Makati, E-Jeepneys or Electric Jeepneys are used as well as Electrical Tricycles (Rickshaws)
Eagle G-Car a Philippine all-electric car was made available for purchase in the Philippines as low as $3,000-$6,000), the car is made out of fiber glass
[471] While E-Jeepneys are expected to be available in many other cities in the Philippines and hope to be revolutionize and made into an icon of the Philippines, it is a venture of Renewable Independent Power Producer Inc
, which sprang from Greenpeace and other groups, and Solarco, which in turn is a part of GRIPP
Portugal reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its Japanese partner Nissan to boost the use of electric cars by creating a national recharging network
The aim was to make Portugal one of the first countries to offer drivers nationwide charging stations
[473] As of May 2010[update], there are only about a dozen recharging stations in the country, but the government expects to deploy 320 before the end of 2010 and 1,300 by the end of 2011
[474] The government established a subsidy of €5,000 for the first 5,000 new electric cars sold in the country
In addition, there was a €1,500 incentive if the consumer turned in a used car at least 10 years old as part of the down payment for the new electric car
[474] Electric cars were also exempt from the registration tax
[117] These incentives were discontinued at the end of 2011 due to the financial crisis of the country
On December 22, 2010, Nissan delivered in Lisbon the first nine Leafs to its commercial customer the MOBI
E consortium, and another unit to the Portuguese government as a loan for trial purposes
Deliveries for individual customers began in early 2011
[476][477] Since 2010 a total of 283 electric cars and utility vans have been sold in the country through October 2012, with the Nissan Leaf as the best selling EV with 121 units
[478] Sales decreased significantly during 2012, with only 44 units sold between January and July due to the end of fiscal incentives
GridCars is a Pretoria based company promoting Commuter Cars, their launch vehicle is based on the TREV from Australia
The concept behind the electric car is to build ultra-light EVs, placing less demand on battery requirements, and making the vehicle more affordable
[480] The Joule, designed by Cape Town-based Optimal Energy,[481] made its debut at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, has a maximum driving range of 300 km (190 mi)
The Juoule accommodates two large-cell lithium ion battery packs
The first series production electric car available for retail sales in the country was the Nissan Leaf, introduced in October 2013
BMW South Africa has plans to introduce the BMW i3 and BMW i8
The country does not have government incentives or subsidies to promote electric cars
All electric cars sold in South Korea are domestically manufactured by local brands
In May 2011 the Spanish government approved a €72 million (US$103 million) fund for year 2011 to promote electric vehicles
The incentives include direct subsidies for the acquisition of new electric cars for up to 25% of the purchase price, before tax, to a maximum of €6,000 per vehicle (US$8,600), and 25% of the gross purchase price of other electric vehicles such as buses and vans, with a maximum of €15,000 or €30,000, depending on the range and type of vehicle
[489] Several regional government grant incentives for the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles including electric and hybrid vehicles
In Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Castile and León electric vehicles are eligible to a €6,000 tax incentive and hybrids to €2,000
Retail sales of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV began in December 2010
[490][491] A total of 233 i-MiEV family electric cars were sold during 2011, representing 58% of all electric vehicles sold in Spain that year
[492] The Nissan Leaf was released in Barcelona in September 2011, followed by Madrid in October 2011
[493][494] A total of 137 Leafs were sold through September 2012
A total of 401 electric cars and utility vehicles were sold in Spain during 2011, led by the Peugeot iOn with 125 units, followed by 85 Citroën C-Zeros and 59 Nissan Leafs
[496] During the first half of 2012 a total of 209 electric cars were sold, representing a market share of 0
05% of new car sales
[497] During 2012 plug-in electric car sales totaled 484 units and 176 electric utility vans were sold, for a total of 660 highway-capable plug-in vehicles registered in 2012
In addition, 943 Renault Twizy quadricycles were sold in the country, making the Twizy the top selling plug-in electric vehicle, followed by the Renault Kangoo Z
with 176 units, and the Nissan Leaf with 154 units
[498] The market penetration of highway-capable plug-in electric cars climbed in 2014 to 0
16% of total new car sales in the country, up from 0
05% in 2011
Sales of the Nissan Leaf in Sri Lanka began in 2013
[501] There are no government incentives or subsidies to promote electric cars in Sri Lanka
Electric vehicle tax increased from 5% to 50% through the new Government’s Interim Budget
[citation needed]
As of September 2015[update], a total of 2,072 electric cars have been registered in the country, with the Nissan Leaf ranking as the most popular model
Electric car sales experienced a record month in September 2015 with 471 units registered, up from only 15 in September 2014
Four Tesla Model S cars were registered the record month
As of December 2014[update], a total of 8,076 plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Sweden since 2011, consisting of 7,311 plug-in cars and 765 all-electric utility vans
[52][54][503][504] As of November 2014[update], the top selling plug-in electric car is the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,385 units registered, followed by the Volvo V60 PHEV with 1,388 units and the Toyota Prius PHV with 1,085
Plug-in hybrids represent 71% of the Swedish plug-in electric car registered stock
[54][504] The top selling all-electric car is the Nissan Leaf with 884 units registered
[54][504] The Renault Kangoo Z
is the leader in the plug-in commercial utility segment with 718 units sold through December 2014
[54][504] The market share of plug-in electric vehicles climbed from 0
57% in 2013 to 1
53% of new car sales in the country in 2014
[54][503] During 2014 registrations of new super clean cars were up 201% from 2013, while registrations of new passenger cars increased 12
In September 2011 the Swedish government approved a 200 million kr program, effective starting in January 2012, to provide a subsidy of 40,000 kr per car for the purchase of 5,000 electric cars and other “super green cars” with ultra-low carbon emissions, defined as those with emissions below 50 grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per km
[505] There is also an exemption from the annual circulation tax for the first five years from the date of their first registration that benefits owners of electric vehicles with an energy consumption of 37 kWh per 100 km or less, and hybrid vehicles with CO2 emissions of 120 g/km or less
In addition, for both electric and hybrid vehicles, the taxable value of the car for the purposes of calculating the benefit in kind of a company car under personal income tax is reduced by 40% compared with the corresponding or comparable gasoline or diesel-powered car
The reduction of the taxable value has a cap of 16,000 kr per year
By July 2014 the program run out of funds as a total of 5,028 new “super clean cars” had been registered in the country since January 2012
[506][507] BIL Sweden, the national association for the automobile industry, requested the government an additional 100 million kr to cover the subsidy for another 2,500 registrations of new super clean cars between August and December 2014
[507][508] In December 2014 the Riksdagen, the Swedish parliament, approved an appropriation of 215 million kr to finance the super clean car subsidies in 2015
The appropriation for 2015, according to the parliamentary decision and subsequent government decision, will be also be used for the retroactive payment of the super green cars registered in 2014 that did not receive the subsidy
A total of 178 all-electric cars were registered in Sweden in 2011, and registrations of plug-in electric vehicles climbed to 928 units in 2012, led by the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid with 499 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 129 units, and the third place was shared by the Volvo C30 Electric and the Opel Ampera with 88 units each
[504] Electric-drive cars reached a market share of 0
33% in 2012
In addition, 265 Renault Kangoo Z
utility vans were sold in 2012
[504] During 2013 a total of 1,545 plug-in electric cars were registered in the country out of 269,363 new passenger cars sold, representing a market share of 0
[503] With 1,113 units registered in 2013, plug-in hybrids represented 72
0% of total plug-in electric car registrations
This number includes 10 BMW i3s sold with the range extender option, which in Sweden are classified as plug-in hybrids
[503] The top selling plug-in cars during 2013 were the Volvo V60 PHEV with 601 units, the Prius PHV with 376 and the Nissan Leaf with 317
Plug-in electric car sales during 2014 grew significantly
Registrations of super clean cars increased five-fold in July 2014 driven by the end of the quota of 5,000 new cars eligible for the super clean car subsidy
[506][507] A total of 4,656 plug-in super clean passenger cars were registered in 2014, representing a 1
53% market share of new passenger cars registered in the country in 2014
Registrations of super clean cars were up 201% from 2013, while registrations of new passenger cars increased 12
[52][54] Super clean cars represented 8
8% of alternative fuel cars sold during 2014
[54] The top selling plug-in electric cars in 2014 were the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,289 units, Volvo V60 PHEV with 745, and the Nissan Leaf with 438 units
The top selling all-electric utility van was the Kangoo Z
with 242 units out of a total of 282 electric vans registered
The following table presents registrations of highway-capable plug-in electric cars by model between January 2011 and December 2014
There is an 80% discount in the annual taxes for the first 3 years, to cars with A efficiency label
Like HEV, EV etc
Deliveries of the Mitsubishi i MiEV began in 2011, and a total of 430 units have been registered in Switzerland through September 2012, including 219 i MiEVs, 110 C-Zeros, and 101 iOns
[509] The Nissan Leaf was launched in November 2011,[510][511] and a total of 86 Leafs have been sold through September 2012
[509] The Swiss government does not have any subsidies or incentives for purchasing plug-in electric vehicles
As of 1 January 2016, a total of 568 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Ukraine
Almost 54,000 plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the UK up until December 2015, including plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars, and about 2,900 plug-in commercial vans
This figure includes a significant number of registered plug-in electric cars and vans which were not eligible for the grant programme
[518][519] As of December 2014[update], there were 1,467 electric cars and vans registered that were not eligible for the Plug-in Grant scheme
[45] Since the launch of the Plug-In Car Grant in January 2011, a total of 49,866 eligible cars have been registered until January 2016
[520] In addition, before the introduction of series production plug-in vehicles, a total of 1,096 all-electric vehicles were registered between 2006 and December 2010
Electric car sales grew from 138 units in 2010 to 1,082 units during 2011
[515][522] Before 2011, the G-Wiz, a heavy quadricycle, listed as the top-selling EV for several years
[523] During 2012, a total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in the UK, of which, 1,262 were pure electrics, and sales were led by the Nissan Leaf with 699 units, followed by the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid and the Vauxhall Ampera, with 470 and 455 units sold, respectively, in 2012
[517][524][525] Vehicles eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant accounted for 0
1% of total new car sales in 2012
During 2013, a total of 3,586 plug-in electric cars were registered, up 59
0% from 2012
[46][527] Of these, 2,512 were pure electric cars, up 99
0% from 2012, and 1,074 plug-in hybrids, up 8
1% from 2012
[46] Plug-in car sales represented a 0
16% market share of total new cars sales in the UK in 2013
[527] The top selling plug-in electric car during 2013 was the Nissan Leaf, with 1,812 units sold,[528] and the Prius PHV ended 2013 as the top selling plug-in hybrid with 509 units sold, up 8
5% from 2012
The British market experienced a surge of plug-in car sales during 2014, driven by the introduction of several new models
[529][530][531] Plug-in electric car registrations in the UK quadruple from 3,586 in 2013 to 14,518 units in 2014
[46] Registrations during 2014 consisted of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids
Total registrations in 2014 were up 305% from 2013, with all-electric cars growing 167% while plug-in hybrid registrations were up 628% from a year earlier
[46] The plug-in electric car segment captured a 0
59% market share of new car sales in 2014, up from 0
16% in 2013
[46][528] In November 2014, with 646 all-electric cars and 1,225 plug-in hybrids registered, the segment’s market share passed 1% of monthly new car sales for the first time in the UK
Nissan Leaf sales in September 2014 achieved a record of 851 units, up from 332 units the same month in 2013, representing not only the best monthly sales ever in the UK, but also the largest volume of Nissan Leafs ever sold in one month in a European country
The previous European record was achieved by Norway in March 2013 with 703 Leafs sold in that month
[531][537] The Outlander P-HEV was among the new models with a significant effect in the market, released in April 2014, it captured a 35
8% market share of total plug-in sales during the first half of 2014
[538] The Mitsubishi plug-in hybrid became the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in July 2014 and captured 43% of all applications to the Plug-in Car Grants scheme that month
[539] The Outlander P-HEV ended 2014 as the top selling plug-in electric car in the UK that year with 5,370 units sold
[540][465] The Nissan Leaf sales also experienced a significant growth in 2014, with 4,051 units sold, up 124% from the 1,812 units sold in 2013
[529] As of December 2014[update], the Leaf continued ranking as the top selling plug-in electric car ever in the UK with cumulative sales of 7,197 units since its introduction in March 2011
[528][529][534] Over 24,500 light-duty plug-in electric cars were registered in the country at the end of December 2014
The surge in demand for plug-in cars continued during 2015, to the extent that 2014’s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) sales figure was passed in June 2015
[542] Plug-in electric car registrations in the UK totaled 28,188 units in 2015, consisting of 9,934 pure electric cars and 18,254 plug-in hybrids
Total registrations in 2015 were up 94
0% from 2014, with all-electric cars growing 48
3% year-on-year, while plug-in hybrid registrations were up 133
0% year-on-year
[514] The plug-in electric car segment raised its market share of new car sales in 2015 to almost 1
1%, up from 0
59% in 2014
[46][518] With almost 3,100 plug-in cars sold during December 2015, the plug-in segment reached a record of 1
7% of new car sales in the UK, the highest ever
Sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV in the British market reached the 10,000 unit milestone in March 2015, allowing the plug-in hybrid to overtake the Leaf as the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the UK
[541][543] Sales of the Nissan Leaf sales passed the 10,000 unit milestone in June 2015
[544] The top selling models in 2015 were the Outlander P-HEV with 11,681 units registered, up 118% from 2014, followed by the Leaf with 5,236 units (up 29%), and the BMW i3 with 2,213 units (up 59%)
[535] As of December 2015[update], cumulative sales of the Outlander P-HEV, the top selling plug-in car in the UK ever, totaled 17,045 units registered,[535] and cumulative sales of the Nissan Leaf, the top selling all-electric car ever, totaled 12,433 units registered
[528][529][534][535]
The following table presents registrations of the top 20 selling highway-capable plug-in electric cars by model by the end of December 2014, and by the end of September 2015
The Plug-in Car Grant program started on 1 January 2011 and is available across the U
The programme reduces the up-front cost of eligible cars by providing a 25% grant towards the cost of new plug-in cars capped at £5,000 (~US$7,450)
[547][548][549] From 1 April 2015, the purchase price cap was raised to cover up to 35% discount of the vehicle’s recommended retail price, up to the already existing £5,000 limit
This change means electric cars priced under £20,000 can take advantage of most or all of the £5,000 discount
[550] Both private and business fleet buyers are eligible for this grant, which is received at the point of purchase and the subsidy is claimed back by the manufacturer afterwards
The Plug-In Car Grant was extended to include vans since February 2012
Van buyers can receive 20% – up to £8,000 (~US$12,000)- off the cost of a plug-in van
To be eligible for the scheme, vans have to meet performance criteria to ensure safety, range, and ultra-low tailpipe emissions
Consumers, both business and private can receive the discount at the point of purchase
In April 2014, the government announced that funding for the full grant of up to £5,000 will remain in place until either 50,000 grants have been issued or 2017, whichever is first
[550][552] As forecasts estimated that the scheme would reached its 50,000 limit around November 2015, the government announced in August 2015 that the Plug-in Car Grant will continue until at least February 2016 for all plug-in cars with CO2 emissions of 75 g/km of under
[542] The Government also announced that a minimum of £200 million (~US$300 million) has been made available to continue the Plug-in Car Grant
In December 2015, the Department for Transport (DfT) announced that Plug-in car grant was extended until March 2018 to encourage more than 100,000 UK motorists to buy cleaner vehicles
A total funding of £400 million (~US$600 million) will be available for the extension
To reflect the rapidly developing technology, and the growing range of ULEVs on the British market, the criteria for the Plug-in Car Grant was updated and the maximum grant drops from £5,000 (~US$7,450) to £4,500 (~US$6,700)
For the extension, the amount of the grant is linked in directly with the Office for Low Emission Vehicles three vehicle categories issued in April 2015
The eligible ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) must meet criteria in one of three categories depending on emission levels (CO2 emissions bands between 50 to 75g/km) and zero-emission-capable mileage (minimum of 10 mi (16 km)), with a technology neutral approach, which means that hydrogen fuel cell cars are eligible for the grant
[550][555][556] The updated scheme will go into effect on 1 March 2016
A price cap will be in place, with all Category 1 plug-in vehicles eligible for the full grant no matter what their purchase price, while Category 2 and 3 models with a list price of more than £60,000 (~US$90,000) will not be eligible for the grant
[555][556] Under the extended scheme, some plug-in hybrid sports car will no longer be eligible for the grant, such as the BMW i8 because of its £100,000 (~US$150,000) purchase price tag
[554] Vehicles with a zero-emission range of at least 70 miles (110 km) (category 1), including hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, will get a full £4,500 (~US$6,700), but plug-in hybrids (categories 2 and 3) costing under £60,000 (~US$90,000) will receive £2,500 (~US$3,725)
[555][556] The grant scheme will come under review when a cumulative total of 40,000 Category 1 claims, and 45,000 Category 2 and 3 combined sales have been made
Both these totals will include cars sold before March 2016
In addition to the extension of the Plug-in Grant, the government also announced it will continue the “Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme
” Starting in March 2016 owners of ultra-low emission vehicles who install a dedicated charge point at their home, covering roughly half the average cost, will get £500 (~US$750) towards the cost of installing the charging point, rather than the previous £700 (~US$1,050) maximum
All-electric vehicles (BEVs) and eligible plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) qualify for a 100% discount from the London congestion charge
A plug-in electric drive vehicle qualifies if the vehicle is registered with the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and has a fuel type of ‘electric’, or alternatively, if the vehicle is a ‘plug-in hybrid’ and is on the Government’s list of PHEVs eligible for the OLEV grant
[557] As of February 2016[update], approved PHEVs include all extended-range cars such as the BMW i3 REx, and plug-in hybrids that emit 75g/km or less of CO2 and that meet the Euro 5 standard for air quality, such as the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, BMW i8, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (passenger and van variants), Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, and Volkswagen Golf GTE
On 19 November 2009, Andrew Adonis, the Secretary of State for Transport, announced a scheme called “Plugged-in-Places”, making available £30 million to be shared between three and six cities to investigate further the viability of providing power supply for electric vehicles, and encouraging local government and business to participate and bid for funds
[559] Current bids from areas to be included in the “Plugged in Places” scheme include; London, Milton Keynes and North East England
The Government is supporting the ‘Plugged-In Places’ programme to install vehicle recharging points across the UK
The scheme offers match-funding to consortia of businesses and public sector partners to support the installation of electric vehicle recharging infrastructure in lead places across the UK
[561] There are eight Plugged-In Places: East of England;[562] Greater Manchester; London;[563] Midlands;[564] Milton Keynes;[565] North East;[566] Northern Ireland;[567] and Scotland
The Government also published an Infrastructure Strategy in June 2011
As of December 2015[update], the United States has the largest fleet of plug-in electric vehicles in the world, with about 410,000 highway-capable plug-in electric cars sold since the market launch of the Tesla Roadster in 2008, representing 33% of the global stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles
[5] Nationwide plug-in car sales climbed from 17,800 units in 2011 to 53,200 during 2012, and reached 97,100 units delivered in 2013, up 83% from the previous year
[569] During 2014 plug-in electric car sales totaled 123,347 units, up 27
0% from 2013, and fell to 114,248 units in 2015, down 7
4% from 2014
[570] The market share of plug-in electric passenger cars increased from 0
14% of new car sales in 2011 to 0
37% in 2012, 0
62% in 2013, and reached 0
75% of new car sales during 2014
[570][571][572] As plug-in car sales slowed down during the 2015, the segment’s market share fell to 0
66% of new car sales, with the all-electric segment up flat at 0
42%, while plug-in hybrids declined to 0
34% in 2014
As of January 2016[update], there are 26 highway-capable plug-in cars available in the American market for retail sales from over a dozen car manufacturers,[575] plus several models of electric motorcycles, utility vans and neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs)
As of December 2015[update], plug-in electric car sales are led by the Nissan Leaf all-electric car with 89,591 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid with 88,750 units
[576] The Leaf passed the Chevrolet Volt as the top selling PEV in March 2015
Both plug-in cars were released in December 2010
[577][578] Launched in the U
market in June 2012, the Tesla Model S ranks as the third top selling plug-in electric car with 63,161 units,[572][579] followed by the Prius PHV, launched in February 2012, with 42,293 units
Ranking fifth is the Ford Fusion Energi with 27,389 units, followed closely by the Ford C-Max Energi with 25,552 units
[570][580][571][572]
During 2013 sales were led by the Chevrolet Volt with 23,094 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 22,610 cars, and the Tesla Model S with around 18,000 units
[581][582] In 2014 the Leaf took the lead, with 30,200 units sold, with the Volt ranking second with 18,805, followed by the Model S with 16,689 units
[570] The Tesla Model S, with 25,202 units delivered, was the top selling plug-in car in the U
, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 17,269 units, the Volt with 15,393, and the BMW i3 with 11,024
[570] October 2013 achieved the best-ever market share for plug-in vehicles at 0
85% of new car sales
[583] December 2015 is the best monthly plug-in sales volume on record ever, with 13,274 units delivered
[570][584] The previous record month was May 2014, with over 12,000 units delivered
California, the largest American car market, is also the leading PEV regional market in the country with a over 200,000 plug-in electric vehicles registered by March 2016, representing 47% of all plug-in cars sold in the U
[61] Plug-in electric cars represented about 0
5% of the passenger fleet on the Californian roads by September 2015
[66] Registrations of plug-in electric cars in the state in 2015 represented 54
5% of total plug-in car sales in the country
[58][570] During 2014 California’s PEV market share reached 3
2% of total new car sales in the state, up from 2
[59][62] In 2015 the state’s plug-in market share fell to 3
1%, with the plug-in hybrid segment declining from 1
6% in 2014 to 1
4%, while the all-electric segment increased to 1
[58] Until December 2014 California had more plug-in electric vehicles than any other country,[63] and its plug-in sales volume in 2014 was higher than any other country
[64] In 2015, California’s plug-in market share was surpassed only by two countries, Norway (22
4%) and the Netherlands (9
7%), and its sales volume compared with other countries was surpassed only by China
From January to May 2013, 52% of American plug-in electric car registrations were concentrated in five metropolitan areas: San Francisco (19
5%), Los Angeles (15
4%), Seattle (8
0%), New York (4
6%) and Atlanta (4
[587][588] From January to July 2013, the three cities with the highest all-electric car registrations were all located in California, Atherton and Los Altos in the Silicon Valley, followed by Santa Monica, located in Los Angeles County
[589][590] In terms of public charging points, there were 19,472 public outlets available across the country by the end of December 2013, led by California with 5,176 charging points (26
6%), followed by Texas with 1,599 (8
2%), and Washington state with 1,325 (6
[591] As of October 2013[update], there were 378 DC quick charging stations across the country
The following table presents cumulative sales for the best selling highway-capable plug-in electric with over 2,000 units delivered and available for retail sales between 1996 and December 2015
The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, and later the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) granted tax credits for new qualified plug-in electric vehicles
[616] The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also authorized federal tax credits for converted plug-ins, though the credit is lower than for new PEVs
The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles is worth $2,500 plus $417 for each kilowatt-hour of battery capacity over 5 kWh, and the portion of the credit determined by battery capacity cannot exceed $5,000
Therefore, the total amount of the credit allowed for a new PEV is $7,500
[616] Several states have established incentives and tax exemptions for BEVs and PHEV, and other non-monetary incentives
Two separate initiatives are being pursued in 2011 to transform the tax credit into a cash rebate worth up to $7,500
The initiatives by Senator Debbie Stabenow and the Obama Administration seek to make new qualifying plug-in electric cars more accessible to buyers by making the incentive more effective
The rebate will be available at the point of sale allowing consumers to avoid a wait of up to a year to apply the tax credit against income tax returns
[618][619][620] Another change to the rules governing the tax credit was introduced by Senator Carl Levin and Representative Sander Levin who are proposing to raise the existing cap on the number of plug-in vehicles eligible for the tax credit
The proposal raises that limit from the existing 200,000 PEVs per manufacturer to 500,000 units
government also has pledged US$2
4 billion in federal grants to support the development of next-generation electric cars and batteries, and US$115 million for the installation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in 16 different metropolitan areas around the country
President Barack Obama also set the goal of bringing 1 million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015
[621][622] However, considering the actual slow rate of PEV sales, as of mid-2012 several industry observers have concluded that this goal is unattainable
[623][624][625]
Since the late 1980s, electric vehicles have been promoted in the US through the use of tax credits
Electric cars are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission vehicle (ZEV) passenger automobiles, because they produce no emissions while being driven
The CARB had set progressive quotas for sales of ZEVs, but most were withdrawn after lobbying and a lawsuit by auto manufacturers complaining that EVs were economically infeasible due to an obvious lack of consumer demand
Many of the factors that hindered the widespread production of electric cars during the late 1990s and 2000s are discussed in the documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car?
The California program was designed by CARB to reduce air pollution and not specifically to promote electric vehicles
Under pressure from various manufactures, CARB replaced the zero emissions requirement with a combined requirement of a very small number of ZEVs to promote research and development, and a much larger number of partial zero-emissions vehicles (PZEVs), an administrative designation for a super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV), which emits about 10% of the pollution of ordinary low emissions vehicles and are also certified for zero evaporative emissions
While effective in reaching the air pollution goals projected for the zero emissions requirement, the market effect was to permit the major manufacturers to quickly terminate their electric car programs and crush the vehicles
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=baL2-3ee2Ck

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